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Introduction

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The following table is an alphabetical listing of some common laboratory tests and their reference ranges for adults as measured in plasma or serum (unless otherwise indicated). Reference values differ among laboratories, so readers should refer to the published reference ranges used in each institution. For some tests, both SI units and conventional units are reported.

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Laboratory Conventional Units Conversion Factor SI Units
Acid phosphatase
   Male 2–12 units/L 16.7 33–200 nkat/L
   Female 0.3–9.2 units/L 16.7 5–154 nkat/L
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 25–40 s
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 15–80 pg/mL or ng/L 0.2202 3.3–17.6 pmol/L
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT) 7–53 IU/L 0.01667 0.12–0.88 μkat/L
Albumin 3.5–5.0 g/dL 10 35–50 g/L
Albumin:creatinine ratio (urine)
   Normal Less than 30 mg/g creatinine
   Microalbuminuria 30–300 mg/g creatinine
   Proteinuria Greater than 300 mg/g creatinine
or or
   Normal
   Male Less than 2.0 mg/mmol creatinine
   Female Less than 2.8 mg/mmol creatinine
   Microalbuminuria
   Male 2.0–20 mg/mmol creatinine
   Female 2.8–28 mg/mmol creatinine
   Proteinuria
   Male Greater than 20 mg/mmol creatinine
   Female Greater than 28 mg/mmol creatinine
Aldosterone
   Supine Less than 16 ng/dL 27.7 Less than 444 pmol/L
   Upright Less than 31 ng/dL 27.7 Less than 860 pmol/L
Alkaline phosphatase
   10–15 years 130–550 IU/L 0.01667 2.17–9.17 μkat/L
   16–20 years 70–260 IU/L 0.01667 1.17–4.33 μkat/L
   Greater than 20 years 38–126 IU/L 0.01667 0.13–2.10 μkat/L
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Less than 15 ng/mL 1 Less than 15 mcg/L
Alpha1-antitrypsin 80–200 mg/dL 0.01 0.8–2.0 g/L
Amikacin, therapeutic 15–30 mg/L peak 1.71 25.6–51.3 μmol/L peak
Less than or equal to 8 mg/L trough Less than or equal to 13.7 μmol/L trough
Amitriptyline 80–200 ng/mL or mcg/L 3.4 272–680 nmol/L
Ammonia (plasma) 15.33–56.20 mcg NH3/dL 0.5872 9–33 μmol NH3/L
Amylase 25–115 IU/L 0.01667 0.42–1.92 kat/L
Androstenedione 50–250 ng/dL 0.0349 1.7–8.7 nmol/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 15–70 units/L 16.67 250–1,167 nkat/L
Anion gap 7–16 mEq/L 1 7–16 mmol/L
Anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-ds DNA) Negative
Anti-HAV Negative
Anti-HBc Negative
Anti-HBs Negative
Anti-HCV Negative
Anti–Sm antibody Negative
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Negative
Apolipoprotein A-1
   Male 95–175 mg/dL 0.01 0.95–1.75 g/L
   Female 100–200 mg/dL 0.01 1.0–2.0 g/L
Apolipoprotein B
   Male 50–110 mg/dL 0.01 0.5–1.10 g/L
   Female 50–105 mg/dL 0.01 0.5–1.05 g/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT) 11–47 IU/L 0.01667 0.18–0.78 μkat/L
Beta2-microglobulin Less than 0.2 mg/dL 10 2 mg/L
Bicarbonate 22–26 mEq/L 1 22–26 mmol/L
Bilirubin
   Total 0.3–1.1 mg/dL 17.1 5.13–18.80 μmol/L
   Direct 0–0.3 mg/dL 17.1 0–5.1 μmol/L
   Indirect 0.1–1.0 mg/dL 17.1 1.71–17.1 μmol/L
Bleeding time 3–7 min
Blood gases (arterial)
   pH 7.35–7.45 1 7.35–7.45
   PaO2 80–105 mm Hg 0.133 10.6–14.0 kPa
   PaCO2 35–45 mm Hg 0.133 4.7–6.0 kPa
   HCO3 22–26 mEq/L 1 22–26 mmol/L
   O2 saturation Greater than or equal to 95% 0.01 0.95
Blood urea nitrogen 8–25 mg/dL 0.357 2.9–8.9 mmol/L
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) 0–99 pg/mL 1 0–99 ng/L
BUN-to-creatinine ratio 10:1 to 20:1
C-peptide 0.51–2.70 ng/mL 330 170–900 pmol/L or
0.33 0.172–0.900 nmol/L
C-reactive protein Less than 0.8 mg/dL 10

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