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Chapter 8. The Application of Statistical Analysis in the Biomedical Sciences

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A pharmacy professor wants to know whether a new instructional method improves test scores during her class. She uses all students in her classroom as participants. This is an example of which type of sampling?

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a. Convenience sample

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b. Cluster sample

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c. Stratified random sample

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d. Multistage sample

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Say the DV in the study described in question 1 is whether the student passed or failed the test using a cutoff of 70%? This is an example of which scale of measurement?

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a. Binary

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b. Categorical

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c. Dichotomous

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d. Discrete

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e. All of the above

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Say a continuous variable such as board scores from the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) are categorized into pass versus not pass, where ≥75 is determined to be the cutoff for passing. If this new categorical variable were included in a statistical analysis, pharmacists who passed the NAPLEX with a score of 80 would be considered identical to pharmacists who passed with a score of 130.

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a. True

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b. False

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The most appropriate measure of central tendency for binary data is:

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a. Mean

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b. Median

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c. Mode

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d. Range

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Variance is an incredibly important descriptive statistic that is used in all statistical analyses. Although, most journal articles will only report the standard deviation, it is easy to translate between variance and standard deviation. For example, say the standard deviation of a continuous variable is reported to be 25. What is the variance?

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a. 100

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b. 250

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c. 50

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d. 625

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A histogram is appropriate to present data for variables measured on which scale of measurement?

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a. Nominal

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b. Interval

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c. Categorical

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d. Ratio

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e....

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