A 67-year-old woman is scheduled for elective total knee arthroplasty.* What local anesthetic agents would be most appropriate if surgical anesthesia were to be administered using a spinal or an epidural technique, and what potential complications might arise from their use? What anesthetics would be most appropriate for providing postoperative analgesia via an indwelling epidural or peripheral nerve catheter?
Simply stated, local anesthesia refers to loss of sensation in a limited region of the body. This is accomplished by disruption of afferent neural traffic via inhibition of impulse generation or propagation. Such blockade may bring with it other physiologic changes such as muscle paralysis and suppression of somatic or visceral reflexes, and these effects might be desirable or undesirable depending on the particular circumstances. Nonetheless, in most cases, it is the loss of sensation, or at least the achievement of localized analgesia, that is the primary goal.
Although local anesthetics are often used as analgesics, it is their ability to provide complete loss of all sensory modalities that is their distinguishing characteristic. The contrast with general anesthesia should be obvious, but it is perhaps worthwhile to emphasize that with local anesthesia the drug is delivered directly to the target organ, and the systemic circulation serves only to diminish or terminate its effect. Local anesthesia can also be produced by various chemical or physical means. However, in routine clinical practice, it is achieved with a rather narrow spectrum of compounds, and recovery is normally spontaneous, predictable, and without residual effects. The development of these compounds has a rich history (see Box: Historical Development of Local Anesthesia), punctuated by serendipitous observations, delayed starts, and an evolution driven more by concerns for safety than improvements in efficacy.
BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
Most local anesthetic agents consist of a lipophilic group (eg, an aromatic ring) connected by an intermediate chain via an ester or amide to an ionizable group (eg, a tertiary amine) (Table 26–1). In addition to the general physical properties of the molecules, specific stereochemical configurations are associated with differences in the potency of stereoisomers (eg, levobupivacaine, ropivacaine). Because ester links are more prone to hydrolysis than amide links, esters usually have a shorter duration of action.
TABLE 26–1Structure and properties of some ester and amide local anesthetics.1 |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf) TABLE 26–1Structure and properties of some ester and amide local anesthetics.1
| ||Structure ||Potency (Procaine = 1) ||Duration of Action |
|Esters || || || |
|Cocaine || ||2 ||Medium |
|Procaine (Novocain) || ||1 ||Short |
|Tetracaine (Pontocaine) || ||16 ||Long |
|Benzocaine || ||Surface use only || |
|Amides || || || |
|Lidocaine (Xylocaine) || ||4 ||Medium |
|Mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Isocaine) || ||2 ||Medium |
|Bupivacaine (Marcaine), Levobupivacaine (Chirocaine) || ||16 ||Long |
|Ropivacaine (Naropin) || ||16 ||Long |
|Articaine || ||nf2 ||Medium |
Pop-up div Successfully Displayed
This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over.
Otherwise it is hidden from view.