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TERMS TO LEARN

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Agonist A drug that activates its receptor upon binding.
Bioavailability The percentage of administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation.
Chemical Antagonist A drug that counters the effects of another by binding the drug and preventing its action.
Competitive Antagonist A pharmacologic antagonist that can be overcome by increasing the dose of agonist.
EC50 In graded dose-response curves, the concentration or dose that produces 50% of the maximum possible response; in quantal dose-response curves, the dose that causes the specified response in 50% of the population.
ED50 Dose required to produce the desired effect in 50% of subjects.
Effector Component of the biologic system that accomplishes the biologic effect after being activated by the receptor; often a channel or enzyme.
Efficacy The maximum effect a drug can bring about, regardless of dose.
Graded Dose-Response Curve A graph of the increasing responses to increasing doses of a drug.
Inert Binding Site A component of the biologic system to which a drug binds without changing any function.
Irreversible Antagonist A pharmacologic antagonist that cannot be overcome by increasing the dose of the agonist.
Kd The concentration of drug that results in binding to 50% of the receptors.
LD50 Dose that is lethal to 50% of subjects.
Partial Agonist A drug that binds to its receptor but produces a smaller effect at full dosage than a full agonist.
pH Inverse log of the hydrogen ion concentration, denotes the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
Pharmacodynamics The actions of the drug on the body.
Pharmacokinetics The action of the body on the drug.
Pharmacologic Antagonist A drug that binds to its receptor without activating it.
Pharmacology The study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical reactions.
Physiologic Antagonist A drug that counters the effects of another by binding to a different receptor and causing opposing effects.
pKa Inverse log of the ionization constant of an acid.
Potency The dose or concentration required to bring about 50% of a drug's maximal effect.
Quantal Dose-Response Curve A graph of the fraction of a population that shows a specified response to increasing doses of a drug.
Receptor A component of the biologic system to which a drug binds to bring about a change in function of the system.
Receptor Site The specific region of the receptor molecule at which the drug binds.
Spare Receptors Receptors that do not have to bind drug in order for the maximum effect to be produced; ie, Kd greater than the EC50; thought to exist if the maximal response is obtained at less than maximal receptor occupation levels.
TI50 Drug dose that indicates the ratio of desired to undesired effects.

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I. PHARMACODYNAMICS

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DOSE-RESPONSE CURVES

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