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Chapter 41: Coronaviruses

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A 63-year-old woman develops fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough. It is early in the winter respiratory virus season, and the patient’s physician does not know what viruses are present in the community. Which of the following viruses is not a cause of acute respiratory disease?

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(A) Influenza virus

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(B) Adenovirus

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(C) Respiratory syncytial virus

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(D) Coronavirus

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(E) Rotavirus

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Based on sequence analysis and serologic assays, the most likely origin of the SARS coronavirus is which of the following?

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(A) Recombination between a human and an animal coronavirus that created a new virus

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(B) Jump of an animal coronavirus into humans

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(C) Mutation of a human coronavirus that resulted in increased virulence

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(D) Acquisition of human cellular genes by a human coronavirus via recombination that allowed viral evasion of the host immune response

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The coronavirus SARS epidemic of 2002–2003 resulted in many cases and deaths. What is the primary route of transmission of human coronaviruses?

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(A) Fecal–oral

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(B) Respiratory

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(C) Blood

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(D) Perinatal mother-to-infant

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(E) Sexual activity

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Coronavirus infections in humans usually cause a common cold syndrome. However, a recent outbreak of SARS was characterized by pneumonia and progressive respiratory failure. The prevention or treatment of these diseases can be accomplished by

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(A) A subunit vaccine

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(B) A cold-adapted live-attenuated vaccine

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(C) The antiviral drug amantadine

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(D) Infection control measures, including isolation and wearing of protective gear

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(E) The antiviral drug acyclovir

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An epidemic of acute respiratory virus infections occurred among the elderly residents of a nursing home. Influenza viruses and coronaviruses, which can cause serious respiratory disease in the elderly, are suspected. Which of the following characteristics is shared by these viruses?

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(A) Segmented genome

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(B) Infectious RNA genome

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(C) High frequency of recombination during replication

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(D) Single serotype infects humans

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