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Chapter 46: Medical Parasitology

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A mother states that she has observed her 4-year-old son scratching his anal area frequently. The most likely cause of this condition is

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(A) Trichomonas vaginalis

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(B) Enterobius vermicularis

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(C) Ascaris lumbricoides

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(D) Necator americanus

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(E) Entamoeba histolytica

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Chagas disease is especially feared in Latin America because of the damage that can occur to the heart and parasympathetic nervous system and the lack of an effective drug for the symptomatic later stages. Your patient is planning to reside in a Venezuelan village for 1–2 years. Which one of the following suggestions would be of special value for avoiding Chagas disease?

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(A) Boil or treat all of your drinking water.

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(B) Sleep under a bed net.

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(C) Do not keep domestic pets in your house.

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(D) Never walk barefoot in the village compound.

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(E) Do not eat lettuce or other raw vegetables or unpeeled fruit.

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A sexually active 24-year-old woman complains of vaginal itching and vaginal discharge. To verify your tentative diagnosis of trichomoniasis, you should include which of the following in your workup?

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(A) Specific serologic test

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(B) Ova and parasite fecal smear

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(C) Wet mount of vaginal fluid

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(D) Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test of serum

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(E) Stool culture

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You are working in a rural medical clinic in China and a 3-year-old girl is brought in by her mother. The child appears emaciated and, upon testing, is found to have a hemoglobin level of 5 g/dL. Her feet and ankles are swollen, and there is an extensive rash on her feet, ankles, and knees. The most likely parasitic infection that causes the child’s condition is

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(A) Schistosomiasis

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(B) Cercarial dermatitis

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(C) Cyclosporiasis

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(D) Hookworm infection

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(E) Trichuriasis

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(F) Ascariasis

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Pathologic effects of filariae in humans are caused by the adult worms in all but one species. In this case, the principal damage is caused by the microfilariae of

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