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INTRODUCTION

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The following table is an alphabetical listing of some common laboratory tests and their reference ranges for adults as measured in plasma or serum (unless otherwise indicated). Reference values differ among laboratories, so readers should refer to the published reference ranges used in each institution. For some tests, both SI units and conventional units are reported.

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Laboratory Conventional Units Conversion Factor SI Units
Acid phosphatase      
 Male 2–12 units/L 16.7 33–200 nkat/L
 Female 0.3–9.2 units/L 16.7 5–154 nkat/L
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 25–40 s    
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 15–80 pg/mL or ng/L 0.2202 3.3–17.6 pmol/L
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT) 7–53 IU/L 0.01667 0.12–0.88 μkat/L
Albumin 3.5–5.0 g/dL 10 35–50 g/L
Albumin:creatinine ratio (urine)      
 Normal Less than 30 mg/g creatinine    
 Microalbuminuria 30–300 mg/g creatinine    
 Proteinuria Greater than 300 mg/g creatinine    
or or    
 Normal      
  Male Less than 2.0 mg/mmol creatinine    
  Female Less than 2.8 mg/mmol creatinine    
 Microalbuminuria      
  Male 2.0–20 mg/mmol creatinine    
  Female 2.8–28 mg/mmol creatinine    
 Proteinuria      
  Male Greater than 20 mg/mmol creatinine    
  Female Greater than 28 mg/mmol creatinine    
Aldosterone      
 Supine Less than 16 ng/dL 27.7 Less than 444 pmol/L
 Upright Less than 31 ng/dL 27.7 Less than 860 pmol/L
Alkaline phosphatase      
 10–15 years 130–550 IU/L 0.01667 2.17–9.17 μkat/L
 16–20 years 70–260 IU/L 0.01667 1.17–4.33 μkat/L
 Greater than 20 years 38–126 IU/L 0.01667 0.13–2.10 μkat/L
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Less than 15 ng/mL 1 Less than 15 mcg/L
Alpha1-antitrypsin 80–200 mg/dL 0.01 0.8–2.0 g/L
Amikacin, therapeutic 15–30 mg/L peak 1.71 25.6–51.3 μmol/L peak
  Less than or equal to 8 mg/L trough   Less than or equal to 13.7 μmol/L trough
Amitriptyline 80–200 ng/mL or mcg/L 3.4 272–680 nmol/L
Ammonia (plasma) 15.33–56.20 mcg NH3/dL 0.5872 9–33 μmol NH3/L
Amylase 25–115 IU/L 0.01667 0.42–1.92 kat/L
Androstenedione 50–250 ng/dL 0.0349 1.7–8.7 nmol/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 15–70 units/L 16.67 250–1,167 nkat/L
Anion gap 7–16 mEq/L 1 7–16 mmol/L
Anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-ds DNA) Negative    
Anti-HAV Negative    
Anti-HBc Negative    
Anti-HBs Negative    
Anti-HCV Negative    
Anti–Sm antibody Negative    
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Negative    
Apolipoprotein A-1      
 Male 95–175 mg/dL 0.01 0.95–1.75 g/L
 Female 100–200 mg/dL 0.01 1.0–2.0 g/L
Apolipoprotein B      
 Male 50–110 mg/dL 0.01 0.5–1.10 g/L
 Female 50–105 mg/dL 0.01 0.5–1.05 g/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT) 11–47 IU/L 0.01667 0.18–0.78 μkat/L
Beta2-microglobulin Less than 0.2 mg/dL 10 2 mg/L
Bicarbonate 22–26 mEq/L 1 22–26 mmol/L
Bilirubin      
 Total 0.3–1.1 mg/dL 17.1 5.13–18.80 μmol/L
 Direct 0–0.3 mg/dL 17.1 0–5.1 μmol/L
 Indirect 0.1–1.0 mg/dL 17.1 1.71–17.1 μmol/L
Bleeding time 3–7 min    
Blood gases (arterial)      
 pH 7.35–7.45 1 7.35–7.45
 PaO2 80–105 ...

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