Skip to Main Content

++

SOURCE

+

Source: Shrader SP, Ragucci KR. Contraception. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1861&sectionid=146066904. Accessed May 11, 2017.

++

DEFINITION

++

  • Prevention of pregnancy after sexual intercourse by inhibiting sperm from reaching a mature ovum (methods that act as barriers or prevent ovulation) or by preventing fertilized ovum from implanting in endometrium (mechanisms that create unfavorable uterine environment).

++

DIAGNOSIS

++
MEANS OF CONFIRMATION AND DIAGNOSIS
++

  • American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and other national organizations allow provision of hormonal contraception after medical history and blood pressure measurement.

++

DESIRED OUTCOMES

++

  • Prevention of pregnancy.

  • Other health benefits include:

    • Prevention of STDs (with condoms)

    • Improvements in menstrual cycle regularity (with hormonal contraceptives)

    • Improvements in certain health conditions (with hormonal contraceptives)

    • Management of perimenopause.

++

TREATMENT: NONPHARMACOLOGIC METHODS AND SPERMICIDES

++

  • Abstinence (rhythm) method not well accepted:

    • Avoidance of sexual intercourse during the days of the menstrual cycle.

    • Associated with relatively high-pregnancy rates.

  • Barrier techniques.

    • Condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, sponges.

    • Higher failure rates than most hormonal contraceptives.

  • Table 1: Comparison of nonpharmacologic contraceptive methods and spermicides.

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1.abcdComparison of Methods of Nonhormonal Contraception

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.