## Chapter 6: The Application of Statistical Analysis in the Biomedical Sciences

Consider a city with one hospital system consisting of six individual hospitals. Say that a researcher plans to collect data from patients who see a physician at any of these six hospitals. What type of sampling design is this?

a. Convenience sample

b. Cluster sample

c. Stratified random sample

d. Multistage sample

b. Cluster sample

An example of a continuous variable is:

a. Data measured on an interval or ratio scale

b. Survey responses ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree

c. Age >75 years

d. None of the above

a. Data measured on an interval or ratio scale

Say a continuous variable, such as board scores from the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX), is categorized into pass versus not pass, where ≥75 is determined to be the cutoff for passing. If this new categorical variable were included in a statistical analysis, pharmacists who passed the NAPLEX with a score of 75 would be considered qualitatively superior from individuals who did not pass with a score of 74.

a. True

b. False

a. True

The most appropriate measure of central tendency for categorical data is:

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. Range

c. Mode

Variance is an incredibly important descriptive statistic that is used in all statistical analyses. Although most journal articles will only report the standard deviation, it is easy to translate between variance and standard deviation. For example, say the variance of a continuous variable is reported to be 100. What is the standard deviation?

a. 100

b. 1

c. 10,000

d. 10

d. 10

What does the length of the whiskers in a boxplot represent?

a. The interquartile range

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