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Contributors

Editors

Dan L. Longo, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Deputy Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

Dennis L. Kasper, MD
William Ellery Channing Professor of Medicine, Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School; Director, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

J. Larry Jameson, MD, PhD
Robert G. Dunlop Professor of Medicine; Dean, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Executive Vice-President of the University of Pennsylvania for the Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Anthony S. Fauci, MD
Chief, Laboratory of Immunoregulation; Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Stephen L. Hauser, MD
Robert A. Fishman Distinguished Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Joseph Loscalzo, MD, PhD
Hersey Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chairman, Department of Medicine; Physician-in-Chief, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Contributors

James L. Abbruzzese, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of GI Medical Oncology; M.G. and Lillie Johnson Chair for Cancer Treatment and Research, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas [99]

Jamil Aboulhosn, MD
Assistant Professor, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California [236]

John C. Achermann, MD, PhD
Wellcome Trust Senior Fellow, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom [349]

John W. Adamson, MD
Clinical Professor of Medicine, Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California [57, 103]

Anthony A. Amato, MD
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [384, 385, 387]

Michael J. Aminoff, MD, DSc
Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California [22, 23, e45]

Neil M. Ampel, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona [200]

Kenneth C. Anderson, MD
Kraft Family Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts [111, 113]

Elliott M. Antman, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital; Boston, Massachusetts [243, 245]

Frederick R. Appelbaum, MD
Director, Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington [114]

Gordon L. Archer, MD
Professor of Medicine and Microbiology/Immunology; Senior Associate Dean for Research and Research Training, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia [133]

Cesar A. Arias, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas; Director, Molecular Genetics and Antimicrobial Resistance Unit, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia [137]

Wiebke Arlt, MD, DSc, FRCP, FMedSci
Professor of Medicine, Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham; Consultant Endocrinologist, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom [342]

Valder R. Arruda, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [116]

Arthur K. Asbury, MD, FRCP
Van Meter Professor Emeritus of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [23]

John R. Asplin, MD
Medical Director, Litholink Corporation; Chicago, Illinois [287]

John C. Atherton, MD, FRCP
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre Biomedical Research Unit (NDDC BRU), University of Nottingham and Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom [151]

Evelyn Attia, MD
Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York [79]

Paul S. Auerbach, MD, MS
Redlich Family Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California [396]

K. Frank Austen, MD
AstraZeneca Professor of Respiratory and Inflammatory Diseases; Director, Inflammation and Allergic Diseases Research Section, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [317]

Eric H. Awtry, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Inpatient Clinical Director, Section of Cardiology, Boston Medical Center Boston, Massachusetts [240, e31]

Bruce R. Bacon, MD
James F. King, MD Endowed Chair in Gastroenterology; Professor of Internal Medicine, St. Louis University Liver Center, St. Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri [308, 309]

Lindsey R. Baden, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [178]

John R. Balmes, MD
Professor of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California [256]

Manisha Balwani, MD, MS
Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, New York, New York [358]

Peter A. Banks, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [312, 313]

Robert L. Barbieri, MD
Kate Macy Ladd Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School; Chairperson, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [7]

Joanne M. Bargman, MD, FRCPC
Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto; Staff Nephrologist, University Health Network; Director, Home Peritoneal Dialysis Unit and Co-Director, Renal Rheumatology Lupus Clinic, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [280]

Tamar F. Barlam, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [121, 146]

Peter J. Barnes, DM, DSc, FMedSci, FRS
Head of Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom [254]

Richard J. Barohn, MD
Chairman, Department of Neurology; Gertrude and Dewey Ziegler Professor of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas [384]

Miriam J. Baron, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [127]

Rebecca M. Baron, MD
Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [258]

John G. Bartlett, MD
Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [258]

Robert C. Basner, MD
Professor of Clinical Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York [Appendix]

Buddha Basnyat, MD, MSc, FACP, FRCP(E)
Principal Investigator, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit-Patan Academy of Health Sciences; Medical Director, Nepal International Clinic, Kathmandu, Nepal [e51]

Shari S. Bassuk, ScD
Epidemiologist, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [348]

John F. Bateman, PhD
Director, Cell Biology, Development and Disease, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia [363]

David W. Bates, MD, MSc
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, General Internal Medicine and Primary Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Medical Director, Clinical and Quality Analysis, Partners HealthCare System, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts [10]

Robert P. Baughman, MD
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio [329]

M. Flint Beal, MD
Chairman of Neurology and Neuroscience; Neurologist-in-Chief, New York Presbyterian Hospital; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York [366, 376]

Laurence H. Beck, Jr., MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [285]

Nicholas J. Beeching, MA, BM BCh, FRCP, FRACP, FFTM RCPS (Glasg), DCH, DTM&H
Senior Lecturer (Clinical) in Infectious Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; Clinical Lead, Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital; Honorary Consultant, Health Protection Agency; Honorary Civilian Consultant in Infectious Diseases, Army Medical Directorate, Liverpool, United Kingdom [157]

Robert S. Benjamin, MD
P.H. and Fay E. Robinson Distinguished Professor and Chair, Department of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas [98]

Michael H. Bennett, MD, MBBS
Conjoint Associate Professor in Anesthesia and Hyperbaric Medicine; Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales; Senior Staff Specialist, Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia [e52]

Edward J. Benz, Jr., MD
Richard and Susan Smith Professor of Medicine, Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School; President and CEO, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; Director, Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC), Boston, Massachusetts [104]

Jean Bergounioux, MD, PhD
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France [154]

Joseph R. Betancourt, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, The Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e4]

Atul K. Bhan, MBBS, MD
Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Director of Immunopathology, Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e38]

Shalender Bhasin, MD
Professor of Medicine; Section Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [346]

Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Cardiology, VA Boston Healthcare System; Director, Integrated Interventional Cardiovascular Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital and VA Boston Healthcare System; Senior Investigator, TIMI Study Group, Boston, Massachusetts [246, e33]

David R. Bickers, MD
Carl Truman Nelson Professor and Chair, Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center; Dermatologist-in-Chief, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York [56]

Henry J. Binder, MD
Professor Emeritus of Medicine; Senior Research Scientist, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut [294, e37]

William R. Bishai, MD, PhD
Professor and Co-Director, Center for Tuberculosis Research, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [138]

Bruce R. Bistrian, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Clinical Nutrition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [76]

Martin J. Blaser, MD
Frederick H. King Professor of Internal Medicine; Chair, Department of Medicine; Professor of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York [151, 155]

Gijs Bleijenberg, PhD
Professor; Head, Expert Centre for Chronic Fatigue, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands [389]

Clara D. Bloomfield, MD
Distinguished University Professor; William G. Pace, III Professor of Cancer Research; Cancer Scholar and Senior Advisor, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center; Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, Columbus, Ohio [109]

Richard S. Blumberg, MD
Chief, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [295]

Jean L. Bolognia, MD
Professor of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut [53]

Joseph V. Bonventre, MD, PhD
Samuel A. Levine Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Renal Division; Chief, BWH HST Division of Bioengineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [279]

George J. Bosl, MD
Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; Chair, Department of Medicine; Patrick M. Byrne Chair in Clinical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York [96]

Richard C. Boucher, MD
Kenan Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine; Director, Cystic Fibrosis/Pulmonary Reseach and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina [259]

Eugene Braunwald, MD, MA (Hon), ScD (Hon) FRCP
Distinguished Hersey Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Founding Chairman, TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [36, 239, 244]

Irwin M. Braverman, MD
Professor of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut [53]

Otis W. Brawley, MD
Chief Medical Officer, American Cancer Society Professor of Hematology, Oncology, Medicine, and Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia [82]

Joel G. Breman, MD, DTPH
Scientist Emeritus, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [210, e27]

George J. Brewer, MD
Morton S. and Henrietta K. Sellner Professor Emeritus of Human Genetics; Emeritus Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Senior Vice President for Research and Development, Adeona Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan [360]

Josephine P. Briggs, MD
Director, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [e2]

F. Richard Bringhurst, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [352]

Steven M. Bromley, MD
Clinical Assistant Professor of Neurology, Department of Medicine, New Jersey School of Medicine and Dentistry–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey [29]

Kevin E. Brown, MD, MRCP, FRCPath
Consultant Medical Virologist, Virus Reference Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom [184]

Robert H. Brown, Jr., MD, PhD
Chairman, Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester, Massachusetts [374, 387]

Amy E. Bryant, PhD
Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, Idaho; Affiliate Assistant Professor, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington [142]

Christopher M. Burns, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, Dartmouth Medical School; Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire [359]

David M. Burns, MD
Professor Emeritus, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California [395]

Stephen B. Calderwood, MD
Morton Swartz MD Academy Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Molecular Genetics), Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [128]

Michael V. Callahan, MD, DTM&H (UK), MSPH
Clinical Associate Physician, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Program Manager, Biodefense, Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), United States Department of Defense, Washington, DC [18]

Michael Camilleri, MD
Atherton and Winifred W. Bean Professor; Professor of Medicine and Physiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota [40]

Christopher P. Cannon, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Investigator, TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [244]

Jonathan Carapetis, PhD, MBBS, FRACP, FAFPHM
Director, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia [322]

Kathryn M. Carbone, MD
Deputy Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, Maryland [194]

Brian I. Carr, MD, PhD, FRCP
Professor of Oncology and Hepatology, IRCCS De Bellis Medical Research Institute, Castellana Grotte, Italy [92]

Arturo Casadevall, MD, PhD
Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York [202]

Agustin Castellanos, MD
Professor of Medicine, and Director, Clinical Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida [273]

Bartolome R. Celli, MD
Lecturer on Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Staff Physician, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [269]

Murali Chakinala, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri [234]

Anil Chandraker, MD, FASN, FRCP
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation; Assistant Director, Schuster Family Transplantation Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [282]

Stanley W. Chapman, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi [201]

Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota [229, e29]

Lan X. Chen, MD, PhD
Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [333]

Yuan-Tsong Chen, MD, PhD
Distinguished Research Fellow, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan [362]

Glenn M. Chertow, MD, MPH
Norman S. Coplon/Satellite Healthcare Professor of Medicine; Chief, Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California [281]

John S. Child, MD, FACC, FAHA, FASE
Streisand Professor of Medicine and Cardiology, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Director, Ahmanson-UCLA Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center; Director, UCLA Adult Noninvasive Cardiodiagnostics Laboratory, Ronald Reagan-UCLA Medical Center; Los Angeles, California [236]

Augustine M. K. Choi, MD
Parker B. Francis Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [251, 253, 268]

Irene Chong, MRCP, FRCR
Clinical Research Fellow, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London and Sutton, United Kingdom [93]

Raymond T. Chung, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director of Hepatology; Vice Chief, Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [310]

Fredric L. Coe, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [287]

Jeffrey I. Cohen, MD
Chief, Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [181, 191]

Ronit Cohen-Poradosu, MD
Senior Physician, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah Hebrew Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel [164]

Francis S. Collins, MD, PhD
Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [83]

Wilson S. Colucci, MD
Thomas J. Ryan Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [240, e31]

Darwin L. Conwell, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [312, 313]

Michael J. Corbel, PhD, DSc, FRCPath
Head, Division of Bacteriology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom [157]

William Edward Corcoran, V, MD
Clinical Instructor, Harvard Medical School; Cardiothoracic Fellow, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e54]

Kathleen E. Corey, MD, MPH
Clinical and Research Fellow, Harvard Medical School; Fellow, Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [43]

Lawrence Corey, MD
Professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine and Head, Virology Division, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington; Head, Program in Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington [179]

Felicia Cosman, MD
Professor of Clinical Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York [354]

Mark A. Creager, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Simon C. Fireman Scholar in Cardiovascular Medicine; Director, Vascular Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [248, 249]

Leslie J. Crofford, MD
Gloria W. Singletary Professor of Internal Medicine; Chief, Division of Rheumatology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky [335]

Jennifer M. Croswell, MD, MPH
Acting Director, Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [82]

Philip E. Cryer, MD
Irene E. and Michael M. Karl Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine; Physician, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri [345]

David Cunningham, MD, FRCP
Professor of Cancer Medicine, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London and Sutton, United Kingdom [93]

John J. Cush, MD
Director of Clinical Rheumatology, Baylor Research Institute, Dallas, Texas [331]

Charles A. Czeisler, MD, PhD, FRCP
Baldino Professor of Sleep Medicine; Director, Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [27]

Marinos C. Dalakas, MD, FAAN
Professor of Neurology, Department of Pathophysiology, National University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece [388]

Josep Dalmau, MD, PhD
ICREA Research Professor, Institute for Biomedical Investigations, August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS)/Hospital Clinic, Department of Neurology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Adjunct Professor of Neurology University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [101]

Daniel F. Danzl, MD
University of Louisville, Department of Emergency Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky [19]

Robert B. Daroff, MD
Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; University Hospitals–Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio [21]

Charles E. Davis, MD
Professor of Pathology and Medicine, Emeritus, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine; Director Emeritus, Microbiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California [e25]

Stephen N. Davis, MBBS, FRCP
Theodore E. Woodward Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Physician-in-Chief, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland [345]

Lisa M. DeAngelis, MD
Professor of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College; Chair, Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York [379]

John Del Valle, MD
Professor and Senior Associate Chair of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan [293]

Marie B. Demay, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [352]

Bradley M. Denker, MD
Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Chief of Nephrology, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, Boston, Massachusetts [44]

David W. Denning, MB BS, FRCP, FRCPath
Professor of Medicine and Medical Mycology; Director, National Aspergillosis Centre, The University of Manchester and Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom [204]

Robert J. Desnick, MD, PhD
Dean for Genetics and Genomics; Professor and Chairman, Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, New York, New York [358]

Richard A. Deyo, MD, MPH
Kaiser Permanente Professor of Evidence-Based Family Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, Department of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Center for Research in Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University; Clinical Investigator, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon [15]

Betty Diamond, MD
The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System; Center for Autoimmunity and Musculoskeletal Diseases, Manhasset, New York [318]

Jules L. Dienstag, MD
Carl W. Walter Professor of Medicine and Dean for Medical Education, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [304, 305, 306, 310, e38]

William P. Dillon, MD
Elizabeth Guillaumin Professor of Radiology, Neurology and Neurosurgery; Executive Vice-Chair, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [368, e44]

Charles A. Dinarello, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado [16]

Raphael Dolin, MD
Maxwell Finland Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Molecular Genetics), Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [178, 186, 187]

Richard L. Doty, PhD
Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery; Director, Smell and Taste Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [29]

Neil J. Douglas, MD, MB ChB, DSc, Hon MD, FRCPE
Professor of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom [265]

Daniel B. Drachman, MD
Professor of Neurology and Neuroscience, W. W. Smith Charitable Trust Professor of Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [386]

David F. Driscoll, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester, Massachusetts [76]

Thomas D. DuBose, Jr., MD, MACP
Tinsley R. Harrison Professor and Chair, Internal Medicine; Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina [47, e15]

J. Stephen Dumler, MD
Professor, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [174]

Andrea Dunaif, MD
Charles F. Kettering Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism; Vice-Chair for Research, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [6]

Samuel C. Durso, MD, MBA
Mason F. Lord Professor of Medicine; Director, Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [32, e12]

Janice Dutcher, MD
Department of Oncology, New York Medical College, Montefiore, Bronx, New York [276]

Mark S. Dworkin, MD, MPH&TM
Associate Professor, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois [172]

Johanna Dwyer, DSc, RD
Professor of Medicine (Nutrition), Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University School of Medicine; Director, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [73]

Jeffery S. Dzieczkowski, MD
Physician, St. Alphonsus Regional Medical Center; Medical Director, Coagulation Clinic, Saint Alphonsus Medical Group, International Medicine and Travel Medicine, Boise, Idaho [113]

Kim A. Eagle, MD
Albion Walter Hewlett Professor of Internal Medicine; Director, Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan [8]

Robert H. Eckel, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Division of Cardiology; Professor of Physiology and Biophysics, Charles A. Boettcher, II Chair in Atherosclerosis, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Director Lipid Clinic, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, Colorado [242]

John E. Edwards, Jr,. MD
Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, Torrance, California; Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California [198, 203]

David A. Ehrmann, MD
Professor of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [49]

Andrew J. Einstein, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York [Appendix]

Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD, PhD
Chief, Department of Clinical Bioethics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [9]

Joey D. English, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Neurology, Univeristy of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [370]

John W. Engstrom, MD
Betty Anker Fife Distinguished Professor of Neurology; Neurology Residency Program Director; Clinical Chief of Service, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [15, 375]

Moshe Ephros, MD
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Medicine, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology; Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Carmel Medical Center; Haifa, Israel [160]

Jonathan A. Epstein, MD, DTMH
William Wikoff Smith Professor of Medicine; Chairman, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology; Scientific Director, Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [224]

Tim Evans, MD, PhD
Assistant Director-General, Information, Evidence, and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland [e1]

Christopher Fanta, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Member, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [34]

Paul Farmer, MD, PhD
Kolokotrones University Professor, Harvard University; Chair, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Co-Founder, Partners in Health, Boston, Massachusetts [2]

Anthony S. Fauci, MD, DSc (Hon), DM&S (Hon), DHL (Hon), DPS (Hon), DLM (Hon), DMS (Hon)
Chief, Laboratory of Immunoregulation; Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [1, 188, 189, 221, 314, 326, e40]

Murray J. Favus, MD
Professor, Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Director Bone Program, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [287, 355]

David P. Faxon, MD
Senior Lecturer, Harvard Medical School; Vice Chair of Medicine for Strategic Planning, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [230, 246, e33]

David T. Felson, MD, MPH
Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology; Chair, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [332]

Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD
Director, Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging National Institute of Health, Baltimore, Maryland [72]

Howard L. Fields, MD, PhD
Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [11]

Gregory A. Filice, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Minnesota; Chief, Infectious Disease Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota [162]

Robert Finberg, MD
Chair, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [86, 132]

Joyce Fingeroth, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [132]

Kurt Fink, MD
Instructor in Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School; Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e54]

Alain Fischer, MD, PhD
University Paris Descartes, Inserm Unit 768; Immunology and Pediatric Hematology Unit, Necker Children's Hospital, Paris, France [316, e39]

Jeffrey S. Flier, MD
Caroline Shields Walker Professor of Medicine and Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [77]

Agnes B. Fogo, MD
John L. Shapiro Professor of Pathology; Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee [e14]

Larry C. Ford, MD
Associate Researcher, Divisions of Clinical Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah [31]

Jane E. Freedman, MD
Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [117]

Roy Freeman, MBCHB
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [20]

Gyorgy Frendl, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Harvard Medical School; Director of Research, Surgical Critical Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e54]

Carl E. Freter, MD, PhD
Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, University of Missouri; Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, Columbia, Missouri [102]

Lawrence S. Friedman, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine; Assistant Chief of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Chair, Department of Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, Massachusetts [43]

Sonia Friedman, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [295]

Anne L. Fuhlbrigge, MD, MS
Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School; Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [253]

Andre Furtado, MD
Associate Specialist at the Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e44]

Robert F. Gagel, MD
Professor of Medicine and Head, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas [351]

Nicholas B. Galifianakis, MD, MPH
Assistant Clinical Professor, Surgical Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e8]

John I. Gallin, MD
Director, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [60]

Charlotte A. Gaydos, DrPh, MPH, MS
Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [176]

J. Michael Gaziano, MD, MPH
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Director, Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Center, Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts [225]

Thomas A. Gaziano, MD, MSc
Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Professor, Health Policy and Management, Center for Health Decision Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health; Associate Physician in Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [225]

Susan L. Gearhart, MD
Assistant Professor of Colorectal Surgery and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [297, 298]

Robert H. Gelber, MD
Clinical Professor of Medicine and Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [166]

Jeffrey A. Gelfand, MD
Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [18, 211]

Alfred L. George, Jr., MD
Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology; Chief, Division of Genetic Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [277]

Dale N. Gerding, MD
Professor of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine; Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development, Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois [129]

Alicia K. Gerke, MD
Associate, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa [255]

Michael Geschwind, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California [e8]

Marc G. Ghany, MD, MHSc
Staff Physician, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [301]

Michael Giladi, MD, MSc
Associate Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel [160]

Bruce C. Gilliland, MD
Professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington [337]

Roger I. Glass, MD, PhD
Director, Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland [190]

Eli Glatstein, MD
Professor and Vice Chairman, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [223]

Peter J. Goadsby, MD, PhD, DSc, FRACP FRCP
Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California; Honorary Consultant Neurologist, Hospital for Sick Children, London, United Kingdom [14]

Ary L. Goldberger, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [228, e28, e30]

David Goldblatt, PhD, MBChB, FRCP, FRCPCH
Professor of Vaccinology and Immunology; Consultant in Paediatric Immunology; Director of Clinical Research and Development; Director, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Child Health; University College London; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom [134]

Samuel Z. Goldhaber, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Venous Thromboembolism Research Group, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [262]

Ralph Gonzales, MD, MSPH
Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [31]

Douglas S. Goodin, MD
Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California [380]

Craig E. Gordon, MD, MS
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Attending, Section of Nephrology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [284]

Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD
Dr. Robert J. Glaser Distinguished University Professor; Director, Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri [64]

Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e10]

Gregory A. Grabowski, MD
Professor, Departments of Pediatrics, and Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology; University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, A. Graeme Mitchell Chair in Human Genetics; Director, Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hosptial Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio [361]

Alexander R. Green, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director, The Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e4]

Norton J. Greenberger, MD
Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [311, 312, 313]

Daryl R. Gress, MD, FAAN, FCCM
Professor of Neurocritical Care and Stroke; Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [275]

Rasim Gucalp, MD
Professor of Clinical Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Associate Chairman for Educational Programs, Department of Oncology; Director, Hematology/Oncology Fellowship, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York [276]

Kalpana Gupta, MD, MPH
Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Chief, Section of Infectious Diseases, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts [288]

John G. Haaga, MD
Deputy Associate Director, Behavioral and Social Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [70]

Chadi A. Hage, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary–Critical Care and Infectious Diseases, Roudebush VA Medical Center; Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana [199]

Bevra Hannahs Hahn, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California [319]

Janet E. Hall, MD, MSc
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [50, 347]

Jesse B. Hall, MD, FCCP
Professor of Medicine, Anesthesia and Critical Care; Chief, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [267]

Scott A. Halperin, MD
Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Immunology; CIHR/Wyeth Chair in Clinical Vaccine Research; Head, Pediatric Infectious Diseases; Director, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada [148]

R. Doug Hardy, MD
Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas [175]

Raymond C. Harris, MD
Ann and Roscoe R. Robinson Professor of Medicine; Chief, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [278]

William L. Hasler, MD
Professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan [39, 290]

Terry Hassold, PhD
Eastlick Distinguished Professor; Director, Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University School of Molecular Biosciences, Pullman, Washington [62]

Stephen L. Hauser, MD
Robert A. Fishman Distinguished Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [1, 366, 367, 376, 377, 380, 385, e46]

Barton F. Haynes, MD
Frederic M. Hanes Professor of Medicine and Immunology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology; Director, Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina [314]

Douglas C. Heimburger, MD, MS
Professor of Medicine; Associate Director for Education and Training, Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [75]

J. Claude Hemphill, III, MD, MAS
Professor of Clinical Neurology and Neurological Surgery, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco; Director of Neurocritical Care, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California [275]

Patrick H. Henry, MD
Clinical Adjunct Professor of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa [59]

Katherine A. High, MD
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; William H. Bennett Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Director, Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [68, 116]

Ikuo Hirano, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [38, 292]

Martin S. Hirsch, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts [182]

Helen H. Hobbs, MD
Professor of Internal Medicine and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland [356]

Judith S. Hochman, MD
Harold Snyder Family Professor of Cardiology; Clinical Chief, Leon Charney Division of Cardiology; Co-Director, NYU-HHC Clinical and Translational Science Institute; Director, Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York [272]

A. Victor Hoffbrand, DM
Professor Emeritus of Haematology, University College, London; Honorary Consultant Haematologist, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom [105]

David M. Hoganson, MD
Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Organ Fabrication Center for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [69]

Charles W. Hoge, MD
Senior Scientist and Staff Psychiatrist, Center for Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Water Reed Army Medical Center, Silver Spring, Maryland [e48]

Elizabeth L. Hohmann, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [139]

Steven M. Holland, MD
Chief, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [60, 167]

King K. Holmes, MD, PhD
Chair, Global Health; Professor of Medicine and Global Health; Adjunct Professor, Epidemiology; Director, Center for AIDS and STD; University of Washington School of Medicine; Head, Infectious Diseases Section, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington [130]

Jay H. Hoofnagle, MD
Director, Liver Diseases Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [301]

Robert Hopkin, MD
Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine; Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio [361]

Leora Horn, MD, MSc
Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [89]

Jonathan C. Horton, MD, PhD
William F. Hoyt Professor of Neuro-ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology, Neurology and Physiology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California [28]

Howard Hu, MD
Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan Schools of Public Health and Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan [e49]

Gary W. Hunninghake, MD
Professor, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa [255]

Sharon A. Hunt, MD, FACC
Professor, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California [235]

Charles G. Hurst, MD
Chief, Chemical Casualty Care Division, United States Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, APG-Edgewood Area, Maryland [222]

Ashraf S. Ibrahim, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Division of Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor–UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California [205]

David H. Ingbar, MD
Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Physiology; Director, Pulmonary Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Division, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota [272]

Alan C. Jackson, MD, FRCPC
Professor of Medicine (Neurology) and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba; Section Head of Neurology, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada [195]

Lisa A. Jackson, MD, MPH
Senior Investigator, Group Health Research Institute; Research Professor, Department of Epidemiology; Adjunct Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [122]

Richard F. Jacobs, MD
Robert H. Fiser, Jr., MD Endowed Chair in Pediatrics; Professor and Chairman, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; President, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, Arkansas [158]

J. Larry Jameson, MD, PhD
Robert G. Dunlop Professor of Medicine; Dean, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Executive Vice President of the University of Pennsylvania for the Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [1, 61, 63, 80, 100, 338, 339, 341, 346, 349, e41]

Robert T. Jensen, MD
Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes; Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [350]

David H. Johnson, MD, FACP
Donald W. Seldin Distinguished Chair in Internal Medicine; Professor and Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas [89]

James R. Johnson, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota [149]

Stuart Johnson, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois [129]

S. Claiborne Johnston, MD, PhD
Professor of Neurology and Epidemiology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California [370]

S. Andrew Josephson, MD
Associate Professor, Department of Neurology; Director, Neurohospitalist Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [25, e47]

Harald Jüppner, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Endocrine Unit and Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [353]

Peter J. Kahrilas, MD
Gilbert H. Marquardt Professor in Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [38, 292]

Gail Kang, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e8]

Marshall M. Kaplan, MD
Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [42, 302]

Adolf W. Karchmer, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [124]

Dennis L. Kasper, MD, MA (Hon)
William Ellery Channing Professor of Medicine and Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School; Director, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [1, 119, 121, 127, 146, 164]

Lloyd H. Kasper, MD
Professor of Medicine (Neurology) and Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire [214]

Daniel L. Kastner, MD, PhD
Scientific Director, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [330]

Carol A. Kauffman, MD
Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School; Chief, Infectious Diseases Section, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan [206]

Elaine T. Kaye, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [17, e7]

Kenneth M. Kaye, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [17, e7]

John A. Kessler, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [67]

Jay S. Keystone, MD, FRCPC, MSc (CTM)
Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [123]

Sundeep Khosla, MD
Professor of Medicine and Physiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota [46]

Elliott Kieff, MD, PhD
Harriet Ryan Albee Professor, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Infectious Diseases Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [177]

Anthony A. Killeen, MD, PhD
Associate Professor; Director of Clinical Laboratories, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota [e53]

Jim Yong Kim, MD, PhD
Chair, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health; Chief, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [2]

Kami Kim, MD
Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York [214]

Lindsay King, MD
Clinical and Research Fellow, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e56]

Talmadge E. King, Jr., MD
Julius R. Krevans Distinguished Professor in Internal Medicine; Chair, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [261]

Louis V. Kirchhoff, MD, MPH
Professor of Internal Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Epidemiology, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa [213]

Priya S. Kishnani, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina [362]

Rob Knight, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado [64]

Minoru S. H. Ko, MD, PhD
Senior Investigator and Chief, Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland [65]

Barbara Konkle, MD
Professor of Medicine, Hematology, University of Washington; Director, Translational Research, Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, Washington [58, 115]

Peter Kopp, MD
Associate Professor, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Science, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [61]

Walter J. Koroshetz, MD
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [382]

Thomas R. Kosten, MD
Baylor College of Medicine; Veteran's Administration Medical Center, Houston, Texas [393]

Theodore A. Kotchen, MD
Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine; Associate Dean for Clinical Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin [247]

Phyllis E. Kozarsky, MD
Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia [123]

Barnett S. Kramer, MD, MPH
Associate Director for Disease Prevention, Office of Disease Prevention, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [82]

Joel Kramer, PsyD
Clinical Professor of Neuropsychology in Neurology; Director of Neuropsychology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e10]

Stephen M. Krane, MD
Persis, Cyrus and Marlow B. Harrison Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [352]

Alexander Kratz, MD, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Director, Core Laboratory, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York [Appendix]

John P. Kress, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [267]

Patricia Kritek, MD, EdM
Associate Professor, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [34, 251, e34]

Henry M. Kronenberg, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [352]

Robert F. Kushner, MD, MS
Professor of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [78]

Loren Laine, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California [41]

Anil K. Lalwani, MD
Professor, Departments of Otolaryngology, Pediatrics, and Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York [30]

H. Clifford Lane, MD
Clinical Director; Director, Division of Clinical Research; Deputy Director, Clinical Research and Special Projects; Chief, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [189, 221]

Carol A. Langford, MD, MHS
Director, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research, Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio [326, 328, 336, 337, e40]

Regina C. LaRocque, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [128]

Wei C. Lau, MD
Associate Professor, Medical Director, Cardiovascular Center Operating Rooms; Director, Adult Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan [8]

Leslie P. Lawley, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia [52]

Thomas J. Lawley, MD
William P. Timmie Professor of Dermatology, Dean, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia [51, 52, 54, e16]

Thomas H. Lee, MD, MSc
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Network President, Partners Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts [12]

Jane A. Leopold, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [230, e33]

Nelson Leung, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota [286]

Bruce D. Levy, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [268]

Julia B. Lewis, MD
Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee [283]

Peter Libby, MD
Mallinckrodt Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [224, 241, e32]

Richard W. Light, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee [263]

Julie Lin, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [44]

Robert Lindsay, MD, PhD
Chief, Internal Medicine; Professor of Clinical Medicine, Helen Hayes Hospital, West Haverstraw, New York [354]

Marc E. Lippman, MD, MACP
Kathleen and Stanley Glaser Professor; Chairman, Department of Medicine, Deputy Director, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida [90]

Peter E. Lipsky, MD
Charlottesville, Virginia [318, 331]

Kathleen D. Liu, MD, PhD, MAS
Assistant Professor, Divisions of Nephrology and Critical Care Medicine, Departments of Medicine and Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [281]

Bernard Lo, MD
Professor of Medicine; Director, Program in Medical Ethics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e5]

Dan L. Longo, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Deputy Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [1, 57, 59, 66, 81, 84, 85, 100, 102, 110, 111, 188, e6, e17, e20, e21]

Nicola Longo, MD, PhD, MACP
Professor of Pediatrics; Chief, Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah [364, 365]

Joseph Loscalzo, MD, PhD
Hersey Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chairman, Department of Medicine; Physician-in-Chief, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [1, 35, 36, 37, 117, 224, 226, 227, 237, 238, 243, 245, 248, 249, e13, e19]

Phillip A. Low, MD
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Professor of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota [375]

Daniel H. Lowenstein, MD
Dr. Robert B. and Mrs. Ellinor Aird Professor of Neurology; Director, Epilepsy Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [367, 369, e42]

Elyse E. Lower, MD
Medical Oncology and Hematology, University of Cincinnati; Oncology Hematology Care, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio [329]

Franklin D. Lowy, MD
Professor of Medicine and Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York [135]

Sheila A. Lukehart, PhD
Professor, Departments of Medicine and Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [169, 170]

Lucio Luzzatto, MD, FRCP, FRCPath
Professor of Haematology, University of Genova, Scientific Director Istituto Toscano Tumori, Italy [106]

Lawrence C. Madoff, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts; Director, Division of Epidemiology and Immunization, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts [119, 334, e23, e24]

Emily Nelson Maher, MD
Clinical Instructor, Department of Anesthesiology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e57]

Adel A. F. Mahmoud, MD, PhD
Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey [219]

Ronald V. Maier, MD
Jane and Donald D. Trunkey Professor and Vice-Chair, Surgery, University of Washington; Surgeon-in-Chief, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington [270]

Mark E. Mailliard, MD
Frederick F. Paustian Professor; Chief, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska [307]

Hari R. Mallidi, MD
Assistant Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery; Director of Mechanical Circulatory Support, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California [235]

Hanna Mandel, MD
Director, Pediatric Metabolic Disorders, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel [e18]

Brian F. Mandell, MD, PhD, MACP, FACR
Professor and Chairman of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine; Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Disease, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio [336]

Lionel A. Mandell, MD, FRCP(C), FRCP(LOND)
Professor of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [257]

Douglas L. Mann, MD
Lewin Chair and Chief, Cardiovascular Division; Professor of Medicine, Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri [234]

JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH
Professor of Medicine and the Michael and Lee Bell Professor of Women's Health, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [348]

Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [77]

Francis Marchlinski, MD
Professor of Medicine; Director, Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [233]

Guido Marcucci, MD
Professor of Medicine; John B. and Jane T. McCoy Chair in Cancer Research; Associate Director of Translational Research, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio [109]

Daniel B. Mark, MD, MPH
Professor of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center; Director, Outcomes Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina [3]

Alexander G. Marneros, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts; Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts [56]

Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington [130]

Thomas Marrie, MD
Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada [174]

Gary J. Martin, MD
Raymond J. Langenbach, MD Professor of Medicine; Vice Chairman for Faculty Affairs, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [4]

George M. Martin, MD
Professor of Pathology Emeritus, Adjunct Professor of Genome Sciences (Retired), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Visiting Scholar, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California [71]

Joseph B. Martin, MD, PhD
Edward R. and Anne G. Lefler Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [367]

Matthew Martinez, MD
Lehigh Valley Physician Group, Lehigh Valley Heart Specialists, Allentown, Pennsylvania [229, e29]

Susan Maslanka, PhD
Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [141]

Robert J. Mayer, MD
Stephen B. Kay Family Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [91]

Alexander J. McAdam, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e22]

Calvin O. McCall, MD
Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center; Chief, Dermatology Section, Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia [52]

John F. McConville, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [264]

Kevin T. McVary, MD, FACS
Professor of Urology, Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [48]

Nancy K. Mello, PhD
Professor of Psychology (Neuroscience), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Director, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts [394]

Shlomo Melmed, MD
Senior Vice President and Dean of the Medical Faculty, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California [339]

Jack H. Mendelson, MD
Professor of Psychiatry (Neuroscience), Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts [394]

Robert O. Messing, MD
Professor, Department of Neurology; Senior Associate Director, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [390]

M.-Marsel Mesulam, MD
Professor of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychology, Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [26]

Susan Miesfeldt, MD
Mercy Hospital, Maine Centers for Cancer Medicine, Scarbrough, Maine [63]

Edgar L. Milford, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Tissue Typing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [282]

Bruce L. Miller, MD
AW and Mary Margaret Clausen Distinguished Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California [25, 371, 383, e9, e10]

Samuel I. Miller, MD
Professor of Genome Sciences, Medicine, and Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [153]

Simon J. Mitchell, MB ChB, PhD
Associate Professor in Anesthesiology, Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland; Consultant Anesthetist, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand [e52]

Thomas A. Moore, MD, FACP, FIDSA
Chairman, Department of Infectious Diseases, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana [208, e26]

Pat J. Morin, PhD
Senior Investigator, Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland [83]

Charles A. Morris, MD, MPH
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e55, e57]

William J. Moss, MD, MPH
Associate Professor, Departments of Epidemiology, International Health, and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland [192]

Robert J. Motzer, MD
Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; Attending Physician, Genitourinary Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York [94, 96]

David B. Mount, MD, FRCPC
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Renal Division, VA Boston Healthcare System; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [45, e15]

Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos, MD, FACP, FRCP, Master ACR
Professor and Director, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical School, National University of Athens, Athens, Greece [320, 324, 327]

Robert S. Munford, MD
Bethesda, Maryland [271]

Nikhil C. Munshi, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts [111]

John R. Murphy, PhD
Professor of Medicine and Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [138]

Timothy F. Murphy, MD
UB Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York [145]

Barbara E. Murray, MD
J. Ralph Meadows Professor and Director, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas [137]

Joseph A. Murray, MD
Professor of Medicine, Departments of Internal Medicine and Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota [40]

Mark B. Mycyk, MD
Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine; Rush University School of Medicine, Research Director, Division of Toxicology, Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois [e50]

Robert J. Myerburg, MD
Professor, Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Division of Cardiology; AHA Chair in Cardiovascular Research, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida [273]

Hari Nadiminti, MD
Clinical Instructor, Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia [87]

Edward T. Naureckas, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [252]

Eric G. Neilson, MD
Thomas Fearn Frist Senior Professor of Medicine and Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [277, 278, 283, e14]

Gerald T. Nepom, MD, PhD
Director, Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason; Director, Immune Tolerance Network; Professor, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington [315]

Eric J. Nestler, MD, PhD
Nash Family Professor and Chair, Department of Neuroscience; Director, Friedman Brain Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York [390]

Hartmut P. H. Neumann, MD
Head, Section Preventative Medicine, Department of Nephrology and General Medicine, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Germany [343]

Joseph P. Newhouse, PhD
John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School; Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Kennedy School; Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts [e3]

Jonathan Newmark, MD
Colonel, Medical Corps, US Army; Deputy Joint Program Executive Officer, Medical Systems, Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical/Biological Defense, US Department of Defense, Falls Church, Virginia; Chemical Casualty Care Consultant to the US Army Surgeon General; Adjunct Professor of Neurology, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland [222]

Rick A. Nishimura, MD, FACC, FACP
Judd and Mary Morris Leighton Professor of Cardiovascular Diseases; Professor of Medicine; Consultant, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota [229, e29]

Robert L. Norris, MD
Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California [396]

Thomas B. Nutman, MD
Head, Helminth Immunology Section; Head, Clinical Parasitology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [217, 218]

Katherine L. O'Brien, MDCM, MPH, FRCPC
Associate Professor, Center for American Indian Health; Departments of International Health and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland [134]

Richard J. O'Brien, MD
Head, Product Evaluation and Demonstration, Foundation for Innovative and New Diagnostics (FIND), Geneva, Switzerland [165]

Max R. O'Donnell, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York [168]

Nigel O'Farrell, MSc, MD, FRCP
Ealing Hospital, London, United Kingdom [161]

Jennifer Ogar, MS
Speech Pathologist, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Acting Chief of Speech Pathology at the Department of Veterans Affairs, Martinez, California [e10]

Patrick T. O'Gara, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Clinical Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [227, 237, e13]

C. Warren Olanow MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York [372]

Andrew B. Onderdonk, PhD
Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e22]

Chung Owyang, MD
H. Marvin Pollard Professor of Internal Medicine; Chief, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan [290, 296]

William Pao, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Cancer Biology, and Pathology, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [89]

Umesh D. Parashar, MBBS, MPH
Lead, Viral Gastroenteritis Epidemiology Team, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [190]

Shreyaskumar R. Patel, MD
Center Medical Director, Sarcoma Center; Professor of Medicine; Deputy Chairman, Department of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas [98]

David L. Paterson, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine, University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research; Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia [150]

Gustav Paumgartner, MD
Professor Emeritus of Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany [311]

David A. Pegues, MD
Hospital Epidemiologist, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California [153]

Anton Y. Peleg, MBBS, PhD, MPH, FRACP
Infectious Diseases Physician, Senior Lecturer, and NHMRC Biomedical Fellow, Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [150]

Florencia Pereyra, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Infectious Disease Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e23, e24]

Michael A. Pesce, PhD
Professor Emeritus of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York [Appendix]

Clarence J. Peters, MD
John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology; Professor, Department of Mirobiology and Immunology; Department of Pathology; Director for Biodefense, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas [196, 197]

Gerald B. Pier, PhD
Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Molecular Genetics), Harvard Medical School; Microbiologist, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [120]

Ronald E. Polk, PharmD
Professor of Pharmacy and Medicine; Chairman, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University/Medical College of Virginia Campus, Richmond, Virginia [133]

Richard J. Pollack, PhD
Research Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Boston University; Research Associate, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts [397]

Andrew J. Pollard, PhD, FRCPCH
Professor of Pediatric Infection and Immunity; Director of the Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom [143]

Reuven Porat, MD
Internal Medicine Department, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel [16]

Daniel A. Portnoy, PhD
Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California [139]

John T. Potts, Jr., MD
Director of Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [353]

Lawrie W. Powell, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine; Director, Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia [357]

Alvin C. Powers, MD
Joe C. Davis Chair in Biomedical Science; Professor of Medicine, Molecular Physiology, and Biophysics; Director, Vanderbilt Diabetes Center; Chief, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [344]

Daniel S. Pratt, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [42, 302]

Michael B. Prentice, MB ChB, PhD, MRCP(UK), FRCPath, FFPRCPI
Professor of Medical Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland [159]

Darwin J. Prockop, MD, PhD
Director and Professor, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine at Scott & White, Temple, Texas [363]

Stanley B. Prusiner, MD
Director, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases; Professor, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [383]

Howard I. Pryor, II, MD
Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Organ Fabrication, Center for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [69]

Thomas C. Quinn, MD
Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Senior Investigator, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [176]

Gil Rabinovici, MD
Attending Neurologist, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e10]

Daniel J. Rader, MD
Cooper-McClure Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [356]

Sanjay Ram, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [144]

Reuben Ramphal, MD
Professor of Medicine, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida [152]

Kumanan Rasanathan, MBChB, MPH, FAFPHM
Technical Officer, Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade, and Human Rights, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland [e1]

Neil H. Raskin, MD
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [14]

Anis Rassi, Jr., MD, PhD, FACC, FACP, FAHA
Scientific Director, Anis Rassi Hospital, Goiânia, Brazil [213]

James P. Rathmell, MD
Associate Professor of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [11]

Mario C. Raviglione, MD
Director, Stop TB Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland [165]

Sharon L. Reed, MD
Professor of Pathology and Medicine; Director, Microbiology and Virology Laboratories, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California [e25]

Susan E. Reef, MD
Medical Epidemiologist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [193]

Richard C. Reichman, MD
Professor of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York [185]

John J. Reilly, Jr., MD
Executive Vice Chairman; Department of Medicine; Professor of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [260, e34]

John T. Repke, MD
University Professor and Chairman, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Obstetrician-Gynecologist-in-Chief, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania [7]

Victor I. Reus, MD, DFAPA, FACP
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine; Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [391]

Joseph Rhatigan, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Professor, Harvard School of Public Health; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [2]

Peter A. Rice, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [144]

Stuart Rich, MD
Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [250]

Gary S. Richardson, MD
Senior Research Scientist and Staff Physician, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan [27]

Elizabeth Robbins, MD
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e46]

Gary L. Robertson, MD
Emeritus Professor of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [340]

Russell G. Robertson, MD
Vice President for Medical Affairs, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science; Dean, Chicago Medical School, Chicago, Illinois [80]

Dan M. Roden, MD
William Stokes Professor of Experimental Therapeutics; Assistant Vice-Chancellor for Personalized Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee [5]

James A. Romano, Jr., PhD, DABT
Senior Principal Life Scientist and Technical Fellow, Science Applications International Corporation, Frederick, Maryland [222]

Karen L. Roos, MD
John and Nancy Nelson Professor of Neurology and Professor of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana [381]

Allan H. Ropper, MD
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Executive Vice Chair of Neurology, Raymond D. Adams Distinguished Clinician, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [274, 377, 378]

Roger N. Rosenberg, MD
Zale Distinguished Chair and Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas [373]

Myrna R. Rosenfeld, MD, PhD
Professor of Neurology and Chief, Division of Neuro-oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [101]

John H. Rubenstein, MD, PhD
Nina Ireland Distinguished Professor in Child Psychiatry, Center for Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [390]

Michael A. Rubin, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah [31]

Steven Rubin, MS
Acting Principal Investigator, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland [194]

Robert M. Russell, MD
Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Nutrition, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts; Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [74]

Thomas A. Russo, MD, CM, FIDSA
Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York [149, 163]

Anna Rutherford, MD, MPH
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e56]

Edward T. Ryan, MD, DTM&H
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health; Director, Tropical and Geographic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [128, 156]

Miguel Sabria, MD
Professor of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona; Chief, Infectious Diseases Section, Germans Trias I Pujl Hospital, Barcelona, Spain [147]

David J. Salant, MD
Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Chief, Section of Nephrology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [284, 285]

Martin A. Samuels, MD, DSc(hon), FAAN, MACP, FRCP
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Chairman, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e43, e47]

Philippe Sansonetti, MD, MS
Professor, Collège de France; Institut Pasteur, Paris, France [154]

Jussi J. Saukkonen, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [168]

Edward A. Sausville, MD, PhD
Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Deputy Director and Associate Director for Clinical Research, University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland [85]

Mohamed H. Sayegh, MD
Raja N. Khuri Dean, Faculty of Medicine; Professor of Medicine and Immunology; Vice President of Medical Affairs, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; Visiting Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Director, Schuster Family Transplantation Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [282]

David T. Scadden, MD
Gerald and Darlene Jordan Professor of Medicine, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [66]

Anthony H. V. Schapira, DSc, MD, FRCP, FMedSci
University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University College London; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen's Square, London, United Kingdom [372]

Howard I. Scher, MD
Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; D. Wayne Calloway Chair in Urologic Oncology; Chief, Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York [94, 95]

Anne Schuchat, MD
Director, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [122]

Marc A. Schuckit, MD
Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California [392]

H. Ralph Schumacher, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [333]

Gordon E. Schutze, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Retrovirology; Vice President, Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative at Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas [158]

Stuart Schwartz, PhD
Professor of Human Genetics, Medicine and Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [62]

Richard M. Schwartzstein, MD
Ellen and Melvin Gordon Professor of Medicine and Medical Education; Associate Chief, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [33]

William W. Seeley, MD
Associate Professor of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [371]

Michael V. Seiden, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine; President and CEO, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [97]

Julian L. Seifter, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [289]

David C. Seldin, MD, PhD
Chief, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine; Director, Amyloid Treatment and Research Program, Boston University School of Medicine; Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [112]

Andrew P. Selwyn, MD, MBCHB
Professor of Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [243]

Ankoor Shah, MD
Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina [321]

Steven D. Shapiro, MD
Jack D. Myers Professor and Chair, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [260]

Kanade Shinkai, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [55]

William Silen, MD
Johnson and Johnson Professor Emeritus of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Auburndale, Massachusetts [13, 299, 300]

Edwin K. Silverman, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Channing Laboratory, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [260]

Martha Skinner, MD
Professor, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [112]

Karl Skorecki, MD, FRCP(C), FASN
Annie Chutick Professor in Medicine (Nephrology); Director, Rappaport Research Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology; Director, Medical and Research Development, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel [280, e18]

Wade S. Smith, MD, PhD
Professor of Neurology, Daryl R. Gress Endowed Chair of Neurocritical Care and Stroke; Director, University of California, San Francisco Neurovascular Service, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [275, 370]

A. George Smulian, MBBCh
Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine; Chief, Infectious Disease Section, Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio [207]

Jeremy Sobel, MD, MPH
Medical Officer, Office of Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [141]

Kelly A. Soderberg, PhD, MPH
Director, Program Management, Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina [314]

Julian Solway, MD
Walter L. Palmer Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics; Associate Dean for Translational Medicine, Biological Sciences Division; Vice Chair for Research, Department of Medicine; Chair, Committee on Molecular Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [252, 264]

Michael F. Sorrell, MD
Robert L. Grissom Professor of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska [307]

Frank E. Speizer, MD
E. H. Kass Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School; Professor of Environmental Science, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts [256]

Brad Spellberg, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor–UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California [205]

Jerry L. Spivak, MD
Professor of Medicine and Oncology, Hematology Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [108]

David D. Spragg, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland [231, 232]

Samuel L. Stanley, Jr., MD
President, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York [209]

E. William St. Clair, MD
Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina [321]

Allen C. Steere, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [173]

Robert S. Stern, MD
Carl J. Herzog Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Chair, Department of Dermatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [55]

Dennis L. Stevens, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Chief, Infectious Disease Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, Idaho [125, 142]

Lynne Warner Stevenson, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Heart Failure Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [238]

Stephen E. Straus, MD
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland [e2]

Stephanie Studenski, MD, MPH
Professor of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Staff Physician, VA Pittsburgh Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [72]

Lewis Sudarsky, MD
Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Director of Movement Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [24]

Donna C. Sullivan, PhD
Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical School, Jackson, Mississippi [201]

Shyam Sundar, MD
Professor of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India [212]

Paolo M. Suter, MD, MS
Professor, Clinic and Policlinic of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland [74]

Richard Suzman, PhD
Director, Behavioral and Social Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Chevy Chase, Maryland [70]

Morton N. Swartz, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Jackson Firm Medical Service and Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [382]

Robert A. Swerlick, MD
Alicia Leizman Stonecipher Professor and Chair of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia [e16]

Geoffrey Tabin, MD
Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine; Director, International Ophthalmology Division, John A. Moran Eye Center; Director, Himalayan Cataract Project, Salt Lake City, Utah [e51]

Maria Carmela Tartaglia, MD, FRCPC
Clinical Instructor of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e10]

Joel D. Taurog, MD
Professor of Internal Medicine, Rheumatic Diseases Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas [325]

Stephen C. Textor, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota [286]

C. Louise Thwaites, MD, MBBS
Musculoskeletal Physician, Horsham, West Sussex; Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [140]

Alan D. Tice, MD, FACP
Infections Limited Hawaii; John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii [126]

Zelig A. Tochner, MD
Professor of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Medical Director, Proton Therapy Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [223]

Gordon F. Tomaselli, MD
Michel Mirowski, MD Professor of Cardiology; Professor of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine; Chief, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland [231, 232]

Mark Topazian, MD
Professor of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota [291, e36]

Barbara W. Trautner, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine; The Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, Houston, Texas [288]

Jeffrey M. Trent, PhD, FACMG
President and Research Director, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona; Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan [83]

Elbert P. Trulock, MD
Rosemary and I. Jerome Flance Professor in Pulmonary Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri [266]

Kenneth L. Tyler, MD
Reuler-Lewin Family Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology; Professor of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado; Chief of Neurology, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, Colorado [381]

Athanasios G. Tzioufas, MD
Professor, Department of Pathophysiology, National University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece [324]

Walter J. Urba, MD, PhD
Director of Cancer Research, Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon [87]

Joseph P. Vacanti, MD
John Homans Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Surgeon-in-Chief, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children; Deputy Director, Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [69]

Jos W. M. van der Meer, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine; Head, Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University, Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands [389]

Edouard Vannier, PhD, PharmD
Assistant Professor, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts University School of Medicine; Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [211]

Gauri R. Varadhachary, MD
Associate Professor, Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas [99]

John Varga, MD
John Hughes Professor of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [323]

Camilo Jimenez Vasquez, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas [351]

Joseph M. Vinetz, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California [171]

Indre V. Viskontas, PhD
Visiting Scholar, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [e9]

Panayiotis G. Vlachoyiannopoulos, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine-Immunology, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical School, National University of Athens, Athens, Greece [320]

Bert Vogelstein, MD
Professor of Oncology and Pathology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [83]

Everett E. Vokes, MD
John E. Ultmann Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine; Physician-in-Chief, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois [88]

Tamara J. Vokes, MD, FACP
Professor, Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois [355]

Sushrut S. Waikar, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [279]

Matthew K. Waldor, MD, PhD
Edward H. Kass Professor of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts [156]

David H. Walker, MD
The Carmage and Martha Walls Distinguished University Chair in Tropical Diseases; Professor and Chairman, Department of Pathology; Executive Director, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas [174]

Mark F. Walker, MD
Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Daroff-Dell' Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio [21]

B. Timothy Walsh, MD
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University; New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York [79]

Peter D. Walzer, MD, MSc
Professor of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine; Associate Chief of Staff for Research, Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio [207]

Fred Wang, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [177, 183]

John W. Warren, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [e35]

Carl V. Washington, MD
Associate Professor of Dermatology, Winship Cancer Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia [87]

Anthony P. Weetman, MD
University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, United Kingdom [341]

Robert A. Weinstein, MD
The C Anderson Hedberg MD Professor of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical College; Interim Chairman, Department of Medicine, John Stroger Hospital, Chicago, Illinois [131]

Jeffrey I. Weitz, MD, FRCP(C), FACP
Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry; Executive Director, Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute; HSFO/J. F. Mustard Chair in Cardiovascular Research, Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Thrombosis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [118]

Peter F. Weller, MD
Chief, Infectious Disease Division; Chief, Allergy and Inflammation Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [215-218, 220]

Patrick Y. Wen, MD
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts [379]

Michael R. Wessels, MD
John F. Enders Professor of Pediatrics; Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [136]

Meir Wetzler, MD, FACP
Professor of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York [109]

L. Joseph Wheat, MD
MiraVista Diagnostics and MiraBella Technologies, Indianapolis, Indiana [199]

A. Clinton White, Jr., MD
Director, Infectious Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas [220]

Nicholas J. White, MD, DSc, FRCP, F Med Sci, FRS
Professor of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand [210, e27]

Richard J. Whitley, MD
Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, Loeb Eminent Scholar Chair in Pediatrics; Professor of Pediatrics, Microbiology, Medicine, and Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama [180]

John W. Winkelman, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Sleep Health Centers, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [27]

Bruce U. Wintroub, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [55]

Andrea Wolf, MD, MPH
Instructor in Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Chief Resident in Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e55]

Allan W. Wolkoff, MD
Professor of Medicine and Anatomy and Structural Biology; Associate Chair of Medicine for Research; Chief, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York [303]

John B. Wong, MD
Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine; Chief, Division of Clinical Decision Making, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [3]

Louis Michel Wong Kee Song, MD
Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota [291, e36]

Robert L. Wortmann, MD, FACP, MACR
Professor, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School and Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire [359]

Shirley H. Wray, MB, ChB, PhD, FRCP
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e11]

Bechien U. Wu, MD
Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [313]

Richard Wunderink, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [257]

Kim B. Yancey, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas [51, 54]

Janet A. Yellowitz, DMD, MPH
Associate Professor; Director, Geriatric Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, Maryland [e12]

Lam Minh Yen, MD
Director, Tetanus Intensive Care Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [140]

Maria A. Yialamas, MD
Instructor, Harvard Medical School; Associate Program Director, Internal Medicine Residency, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [e54, e56]

Neal S. Young, MD
Chief, Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [107]

Victor L. Yu, MD
Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [147]

Laura A. Zimmerman, MPH
Epidemiologist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [193]

Deceased

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