The detailed study of physiological system structure and function has its foundations in physical and chemical laws and the molecular and cellular makeup of each tissue and organ system. This first section provides an overview to the basic building blocks that provide the important framework for human physiology. It is important to note here that these initial sections are not meant to provide an exhaustive understanding of biophysics, biochemistry, or cellular and molecular physiology, rather they are to serve as a reminder of how the basic principals from these disciplines contribute to medical physiology discussed in later sections.
In the first part of this section, the basic building blocks: electrolytes; carbohydrates, lipids, and fatty acids; amino acids and proteins; and nucleic acids; are introduced and discussed. The students are reminded of some of the basic principles and building blocks of biophysics and biochemistry and how they fit into the physiological environment. Examples of direct clinical applications are provided in the Clinical Boxes to help bridge the gap between building blocks, basic principles and human physiology. These basic principles are followed up with a discussion of the generic cell and its components. It is important to realize the cell is the basic unit within the body, and it is the collection and fine-tuned interactions among and between these fundamental units that allow for proper tissue, organ, and organism function.
In the second part of this introductory section, we take a cellular approach to lay a groundwork of understanding groups of cells that interact with many of the systems discussed in future chapters. The first group of cells presented are those that contribute to inflammatory reactions in the body. These individual players, their coordinated behavior and the net effects of the “open system” of inflammation in the body are discussed in detail. The second group of cells discussed are responsible for the excitatory responses in human physiology and include both neuronal and muscle cells. A fundamental understanding of the inner workings of these cells, and how they are controlled by their neighboring cells helps the student to understand their eventual integration into individual systems discussed in later sections.
In the end, this first section serves as an introduction, refresher, and quick source of material to best understand systems physiology presented in the later sections. For detailed understanding of any of the chapters within this section, several excellent and current text books that provide a more in depth review of principles of biochemistry, biophysics, cell physiology, muscle and neuronal physiology are provided as resources at the end of each individual chapter. Students who are intrigued by the overview provided in this first section are encouraged to visit these texts for a more thorough understanding of these basic principles.