Memorizing these standard concentrations will make conversions easier.
- There is 1 mg of epinephrine in 1 ml of a 1:1000 solution.
- There are 40 mEq of potassium in 30 ml of a 10% potassium chloride solution.
- An 8.4% solution of sodium bicarbonate contains 1 mEq each of sodium and bicarbonate ions per ml.
- There are 154 mEq of sodium in 1000 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride.
- There are 50 grams of dextrose in 1000 ml of D5W.
- There are 1700 calories in 1000 ml of D50W (500 grams of dextrose).
- There are 400,000 units of penicillin equal to 250 mg.
- A nitroglycerin 0.4 mg sublingual tablet contains 1/150 grains.
The following lists are intended to provide a brief review. They are by no means comprehensive and should not be used to make medical recommendations.
Transdermal Systems Should Be Changed Accordingly
|Clonidine patch||every 7 days |
|Estradiol patch||once–twice weekly (depending on brand of product) |
|Fentanyl patch ||every 3 days|
|Lidocaine patch ||every day (remove for 12 hours each night) |
|Nicotine patch ||every day |
|Nitroglycerin patch ||every day |
|Oxybutynin patch||twice weekly|
Scopolamine patch ||every 3 days|
Common Vitamins and the Condition That Results from Their Deficiency
|Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)||Scurvy
|Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12
) ||Pernicious anemia |
|Folic acid||Megaloblastic anemia |
|Niacin (nicotinic acid) ||Pellagra |
|Thiamine (vitamin B1
) ||Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome|
|Vitamin D ||Rickets|
Viruses and Antiviral Agents That Inhibit Them
|Cytomegalovirus ||Cidofovir (Vistide) |
|Ganciclovir (Cytovene) |
|Foscarnet (Foscavir) |
Fomivirsen (Vitravene) |
|Hepatitis B virus ||Adefovir dipivoxil |
|Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A)|
|Lamivudine (Epivir HBV) |
|Hepatitis C virus||Interferon alfa-2b/ribavirin|
|Herpes simplex virus ||Acyclovir (Zovirax) |
|Famciclovir (Famvir) |
|Valacyclovir (Valtrex) |
|Influenza A virus ||Amantadine (Symmetrel) |
|Rimantadine (Flumadine) |
|Influenza A and B virus ||Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)|
|Zanamivir (Relenza) |
|Respiratory syncytial virus||Ribavirin (Rebetron)
|Varicella-zoster virus ||Acyclovir (Zovirax)|
Common Medications and Their Antidotes
|Digoxin||Digoxin immune fab|
Morphine (opiates) ||Naloxone|
|Nitrogen mustard||Sodium thiosulfate|
Common Laboratory Tests and What They Indicate
|ANA titer ||Rheumatic diseases|
|aPTT ||Used to monitor heparin therapy|
screening for blood donor/recipient compatability |
|d-xylose ||GI function |
|Guaiac ||Occult blood in the stool|
|INR||Used to monitor warfarin therapy|
|Prostate specific antigen
||Prostate cancer |
|Prothrombin time||Used to monitor warfarin therapy |
|Reinsch ||Screen for heavy metals|
|Schillings ||Vitamin B12
absorption (pernicious anemia) |
|Sweat test ||Cystic fibrosis|
|Tropronins ||Cardiac marker|
Drugs That Have Commonly Been Associated with Hepatic Failure
- Erythromycin (estolate salt)
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