All laboratory appendices should be interpreted with caution
since normal values differ widely among clinical laboratories. The
values given in this Appendix are meant primarily for use with this
text. In preparing the Appendix, the editors have taken into account
the fact that the system of international units (SI, syst_me
international d’unités) is now used in most countries
and in most medical and scientific journals.1 However,
clinical laboratories in many countries continue to report values
in traditional units. Therefore, both systems are used in the Appendix.
Values in SI units appear first, and traditional units appear in
parentheses after the SI units. The dual system is also used in
the text except for (1) those instances in which the numbers remain
the same but only the terminology is changed (mmol/L for
meq/L or IU/L for mIU/mL), when only
the SI units are given; and (2) most pressure measurements (e.g.,
blood and cerebrospinal fluid pressures), when the traditional units
(mmHg, mmH2O) are used. In all other instances in the text
the SI unit is followed by the traditional unit in parentheses.
The SI base units, SI derived units, other units of measure referred
to in Appendix, and SI prefixes are listed in Tables A-1 to A-3
at the end of Appendix. Conversions from one system to another can
be made as follows:
1Young DS: Implementation of SI units for clinical laboratory data. Ann Intern Med 106:114,1987.
2 Since cerebrospinal fluid concentrations are equilibrium values,
measurements of the same parameters in blood plasma obtained at
the same time are recommended. However, there is a time lag in attainment
of equilibrium, and cerebrospinal levels of plasma constituents
that can fluctuate rapidly (such as plasma glucose) may not achieve
stable values until after a significant lag phase.
|Conversion Factor (CF) C × CF = SI |
|Osmolarity||292–297 mmol/kg water (292–297
|Sodium||137–145 mmol/L (137–145 meq/L)||—|
|Potassium||2.7–3.9 mmol/L (2.7–3.9 meq/L)||—|
|Calcium||1.0–1.5 mmol/L (2.1–3.0 meq/L)||0.5|
|Magnesium||1.0–1.2 mmol/L (2.0–2.5 meq/L)||0.5|
|Chloride||116–122 mmol/L (116–122 meq/L)||—|
|CO2 content||20–24 mmol/L (20–24 meq/L)||—|
|Pco2||6–7 kPa (45–49 mmHg)||0.1333|
|Glucose||2.2–3.9 mmol/L (40–70 mg/dL||0.05551|
|Lactate||1–2 mmol/L (10–20 mg/dL)||0.1110|
|Total protein:||0.2–0.5 g/L (20–50 mg/dL)||0.01|
|Albumin||0.066–0.442 g/L (6.6–44.2 mg/dL)||0.01|
|IgG||0.009 –0.057 g/L (0.9–5.7 ...|
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