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A systematic search of the medical literature was performed on November 2006. The search included relevant articles from PubMed, Ovid, and guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most commonly occurring bacterial infections, accounting for millions of patient visits annually.1–3 Approximately one in three females will have had a UTI by their mid-twenties. In the older adults, infection rates in men and women are similar.

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A UTI is defined as the presence of microorganisms in the urinary tract that cannot be accounted for by contamination. UTIs are classified by several methods. Commonly, describing them by anatomic site or as uncomplicated or complicated is most typical. The main classification method used in this chapter will be the categorization of UTIs as uncomplicated or complicated. Tables 44-1, 44-2, and 44-3 present summary lists on clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and empiric therapy.

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Table 44-1. Diagnostic Criteria for Significant Bacteriuria
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Table 44-2. Clinical Presentation of Urinary Tract Infections in Adults
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Table 44-3. Empiric Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis

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