1. Sanchez LA. Expanding the pharmacist's role in pharmacoeconomics: How and why? Pharmacoeconomics 1994;5:367–375.
2. Townsend RJ. Post-marketing drug research and development. Ann Pharmacother 1987;21:134–136.
3. Drummond M, Smith GT, Wells N. Economic Evaluation in the Development of Medicines. London: Office of Health Economics, 1988:33.
4. Lee JT, Sanchez LA. Interpretation of “cost-effective” and soundness of economic evaluations in the pharmacy literature. Am J Hosp Pharm 1991;48:2622–2627.
5. Bootman JL. Pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1995;52(Suppl 3):S16–S19.
6. Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990;47:533–543.
7. Eisenberg JM. Clinical economics: A guide to economic analysis of clinical practices. JAMA 1989;262:2879–2886.
8. Bootman JL, Townsend RJ, McGhan WF. Principles of Pharmacoeconomics, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Harvey Whitney Books, 2005.
9. Freund DA, Dittus RS. Principles of pharmacoeconomic analysis of drug therapy. Pharmacoeconomics 1992;1:20–32.
10. Barner J, Rascati K. Cost-benefit analysis. In Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:115–132.
11. Blumenschein K, Johannesson M. Use of contingent valuation to place a monetary value on pharmacy services: An overview and review of the literature. Clin Ther 1999;21:1402–1417.
12. Glossary of terms used in pharmacoeconomic and quality of life analysis. Pharmacoeconomics 1992;1:151.
13. Detsky AS, Nagiie IG. A clinician's guide to cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:147–154.
14. Kozma CM, Reeder CE, Schulz RM. Economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes: A planning model for pharmacoeconomic research. Clin Ther 1993;15:1121–1132.
15. Bungay KM, Sanchez LA. Types of economic and humanistic outcomes assessments. In Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:18–60.
16. Draugalis JR, Bootman LJ, Larson LN, McGhan WF. Current Concepts: Pharmacoeconomics. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn, 1989.
17. Drummond MF, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
18. McGhan WF. Pharmacoeconomics and the evaluation of drugs and services. Hosp Formul 1993;28:365–378.
19. Rice DP, Fox PJ, Max W, et al. The economic burden of Alzheimer's disease care. Health Affairs 1993;12(2):164–176.
20. Ernst RL, Hay JW. The U.S. economic and social costs of Alzheimer's disease revisited. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1261–1264.
21. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2003;26:917–932.
22. Stoller MK. Economic effects of insomnia. Clin Ther 1994;16:873–897.
23. Wahlqvist P, Reilly MC, Barkun A. Systematic review: the impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease on work productivity. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;24:259–272.
24. American Gastroenterological Association. Burden of Gastrointestinal Diseases. American Gastroenterological Association, 2001:1–89.
25. Sanchez LA, Lee JT. Use and misuse of pharmacoeconomic terms. Top Hosp Pharm Manage 1994;13:11–22.
26. Cox E. Cost-minimization analysis. In Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:103–114.
27. Sanchez LA. Pharmacoeconomic principles and methods: An introduction for hospital pharmacists. Hosp Pharm 1994;29:1035–1040.
28. Lai LL, Sorkin AL. Cost-benefit analysis of pharmaceutical care in a Medicaid population: From a budgetary perspective. J Manage Care Pharm 1998;4:303–308.
29. Schrand LM, Elliott JM, Ross MB, et al. Cost benefit analysis of RSV prophylaxis in high-risk infants. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35: 1186–1193.
30. Nesbit TW, Shermock KM, Bobek MB, et al. Implementation and pharmacoeconomic analysis of a clinical staff pharmacist practice model. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2001;58:784–790.
31. Sias JJ, Cook S, Wolfe T, et al. An employee influenza immunization initiative in a large university managed care setting. J Manage Care Pharm 2001;7:219–223.
32. Zarnke KB, Levine MAH, O'Brien BJ. Cost-benefit analyses in the health-care literature: Don't judge a study by its label. Clin Epidemiol 1997;50:813–822.
33. Bootman JL, Larson LN, McGhan WF, Townsend RJ. Pharmacoeconomic research and clinical trials: Concepts and issues. Ann Pharmacother 1989;23:693–697.
34. Bootman JL. The basics of pharmacoeconomic analysis. Pharm Rep 1993;23:14–15.
35. Langley PC. The role of pharmacoeconomic guidelines for formulary approval: The Australian experience. Clin Ther 1993;15:1154–1176.
36. Detsky AS. Guidelines for economic analysis of pharmaceutical products: A draft document for Ontario and Canada. Pharmacoeconomics 1993;3:354–361.
37. Pathak DS. QALYs in health outcomes research: Representation of real preferences or another numerical abstraction? J Res Pharm Econ 1995;6:3–27.
38. Kaplan RM. Quality-of-life assessment for cost/utility studies in cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 1993;19(Suppl A):85–96.
39. Gabriel SE, Campion ME, O'Fallon WM. A cost-utility analysis of misoprostol prophylaxis for rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37: 333–341.
40. Schipper H, Clinch J, Powell V. Definitions and conceptual issues. In: Spilker B, ed. Quality of Life Assessments in Clinical Trials. New York: Raven Press, 1990.
41. Spilker B. Quality of Life Assessments in Clinical Trials. New York: Raven Press, 1990.
42. Spilker B, White WSA, Simpson RJ, Tilson HN. Quality of life bibliography and indexes—1990 update. Clin Pharmacoepidemiol 1992;6:157–158.
43. Coons SJ. Quality of life assessment: Understanding its use as an outcome measure. Hosp Formul 1993;28:486–498.
44. Jaeschke R, Guyatt GH, Cook D. Quality of life instruments in the evaluation of new drugs. Pharmacoeconomics 1992;1:84–94.
45. Mackeigan LD, Pathak DS. Overview of health-related quality-of-life measures. Am J Hosp Pharm 1992;49:2236–2245.
46. McGhan WF, Rowland CR, Bootman JL. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness: Methodologies for evaluating innovative pharmaceutical services. Am J Hosp Pharm 1978;35:133–140.
47. MacKeigan LD, Bootman JL. A review of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of clinical pharmacy services. J Pharm Market Manage 1988;2:63–84.
48. Schumock GT, Meek PD, Ploetz PA, Vermeulen LC. Economic evaluations of clinical pharmacy services—1988–1995. Pharmacotherapy 1996;16:1188–1208.
49. Schumock GT, Butler MG, Meek PD, et al. Evidence of economic benefit of clinical pharmacy services: 1996–2000. Pharmacotherapy 2003;23:113–132.
50. Sanchez LA. Pharmacoeconomic principles and methods: Including pharmacoeconomics into hospital pharmacy practice. Hosp Pharm 1994;29:1035–1040.
51. Doubilet P, Weinstein MC, McNeil BJ. The use and misuse of the term “cost-effective” in medicine. N Engl J Med 1986;314:253–256.
52. Bradley CA, Iskedjian M, Lanctot KL, et al. Quality assessment of economic evaluation in selected pharmacy, medical, and health economic journals. Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:681–689.
53. Udvarhelyi S, Colditz GA, Rai A, et al. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses in the medical literature. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:238–244.
54. Mason J. The generalizability of pharmacoeconomic studies. Pharmacoeconomics 1997;11:503–514.
55. Sacristan JA, Soto J, Galende I. Evaluation of pharmacoeconomic studies: Utilization of a checklist. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1126–1133.
56. Hillman AL, Eisenberg JM, Pauly MV, et al. Avoiding bias in the conduct and reporting of cost-effectiveness research sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1362–1365.
57. McGhan WF, Lewis JV. Guidelines for pharmacoeconomic studies. Clin Ther 1992;14:486–494.
58. Sanchez LA. Pharmacoeconomic principles and methods: Evaluating the quality of published pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Hosp Pharm 1995;30:146–152.
59. Clemans K, Townsend R, Luscombe F, et al. Methodological and conduct principles for pharmacoeconomic research. Pharmacoeconomics 1995;8:169–174.
60. Task Force on Principles for Economic Analysis of Health Care Technology. Economic analysis of healthcare technology: A report on principles. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:61–70.
61. Russell LB, Gold MR, Siegel JE, et al. The role of cost-effectiveness analysis in health and medicine. JAMA 1996;276:1172–1177.
62. Weinstein MC, Siegel JE, Gold MR, et al. Recommendations of the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. JAMA 1996;276:1253–1258.
63. Siegel JE, Weinstein MC, Russell LB, et al. Recommendations for repeating cost-effectiveness analyses. JAMA 1996;276:1339–1341.
64. Mullins CD, Flowers LR. Evaluating economic outcomes literature. In: Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:246–273.
65. Eisenberg JM, Glick H, Koffer H. Pharmacoeconomics: Economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals. In: Strom BL, ed. Pharmacoepidemiology. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1989:325–350.
66. Armstrong EP. Sensitivity analysis. In Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:231–245.
67. Mullins CD, Ogilvie S. Emerging standardization in pharmacoeconomics. Clin Ther 1998;20(60):1194–1202.
68. Milne RJ. Evaluation of the pharmacoeconomic literature. Pharmacoeconomics 1994;6:337–345.
69. Sanchez LA, Lee JT. Applied pharmacoeconomics: Modeling data from internal and external sources. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57: 146–158.
70. Olson BM, Armstrong EP, Grizzle AJ and Nichter MA. Industry's perception of presenting pharmacoeconomic models to managed care organizations. J Manag Care Pharm 2003(9);2:159–167.
71. Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Tugwell P. Clinical Epidemiology: A Basic Science for Clinical Medicine. Boston: Little Brown, 1985:126.
72. Barr JT, Schumacher GE. Decision analysis and pharmacoeconomic evaluations. In: Bootman JL, Townsend RJ, McGhan WF, eds. Principles of Pharmacoeconomics, 2nd ed. Cincinnati: Harvey Whitney Books, 1996.
73. Jones MT, Cockrum PC. A critical review of published economic modeling studies in depression. Pharmacoeconomics 2000;17:555–583.
74. Biddle AK, Shih YC, Kwong WJ. Cost-benefit analysis of sumatriptan
tablets versus usual therapy for treatment of migraine. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:1356–1364.
75. Coyle D, Lee KM, O'Brian BJ. The role of models with economic analysis: Focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacoeconomics 2002;20(Suppl 1):11–19.
76. Najib MM, Stein GE, Goss TF. Cost-effectiveness of sparfloxacin compared with other oral antimicrobials in outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:461–469.
77. Barr JT, Schumacher GE. Using decision analysis to conduct pharmacoeconomic studies. In: Spilker B, ed. Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996.
78. Touchette D, Hartung D. Markov modeling. In Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:206–230.
79. Bennett WG, Inoue Y, Beck JR, et al. Estimates of the cost-effectiveness of a single course of interferon-α2b in patients with histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:855–865.
80. Kim WR, Poterucha JJ, Hermans JE, et al. Cost-effectiveness of 6 and 12 months of interferon-α therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:866–874.
81. Younossi ZM, Singer ME, McHutchison JG, Shermock KM. Cost effectiveness of interferon-α2b combined with ribavirin
for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1999;30:1318–1324.
82. Briggs A, Sculpher M. An introduction to Markov modeling for economic evaluation. Pharmacoeconomics 1998;13:397–409.
83. Schecter CB. Decision analysis in formulary decision making. Pharmacoeconomics 1993;3:454–461.
84. Foundation for Managed Care Pharmacy. AMCP Format for Formulary Submission. Version 2.1. A format for submission of clinical and economic data in support of formulary consideration by health care systems in the United States. Alexandria, VA: Foundation for Managed Care Pharmacy, 2005.
85. Malone DC. A budget impact and cost-effectiveness model for second-line treatment of major depression. J Manag Care Pharm 2007; 13(6 Suppl A):S8–S18.
86. Bjornson DC, Hiner WO, Potyk RP, et al. Effect of pharmacists on health care outcomes in hospitalized patients. Am J Hosp Pharm 1993;50:1875–1884.
87. Zabinski RA, Burke TA, Johnson J, et al. An economic model for determining the costs and consequences of using various treatment alternatives for the management of arthritis in Canada. Pharmacoeconomics 2001;19(Suppl 1):49–58.
88. Harrison DL, Bootman JL, Cox ER. Cost-effectiveness of consultant pharmacists in managing drug-related morbidity and mortality at nursing facilities. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1998;55:1588–1594.
89. Kessler JM. Decision analysis in the formulary process. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997;54(Suppl 1):S5–S8.
90. Paladino JA. Cost-effectiveness comparison of cefepime and ceftazidime using decision analysis. Pharmacoeconomics 1994;5:505–512.
91. Akehurst R, Anderson P, Brazier J, et al. Consensus Conference on Guidelines on Economic Modeling in Health Technology Assessment. Decision analytic modeling in economic evaluation of health technologies: A consensus statement. Pharmacoeconomics 2000;17: 443–444.
92. Brennan A, Akehurst R. Modeling in health economic evaluation. What is its place? What is its value? Pharmacoeconomics 2000;17: 445–459.
93. Schulpher M, Fenwick E, Claxton K. Assessing quality in decision analytic cost-effectiveness models: A suggested framework and example of application. Pharmacoeconomics 2000;17:461–477.
94. Motheral B, Brooks J, Clark MA, et al., A checklist for retrospective database studies – Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Retrospective Databases. Value in Health 2003;6(2):90–97.
95. Ahn J, Talley NJ, Brook RA, Nichol MB, McCombs J, Baran RW. Constipation in a Medicaid population: Trends in prevalence, age, gender, and costs in the 12 months after diagnosis from 1997 to 2002 using a random sample of California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) data. Gastroenterology 2007;132(4 suppl 2):A-678.
96. Lobo FS, Pokras SM, Smith TW, et al. Financial impact of lifting a prior authorization on lubiprostone for chronic constipation patients in a commercial managed care population (age < 65 years). Presented at: International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Annual Meeting; May 2008; Toronto, Canada.
97. Kleinman NL, Brook RA, Melkonian AK, Baran RW. Assessment of work absences associated with constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101(Suppl 2):S409.
98. Spyropoulos AC, Lin J. Direct medical costs of venous thromboembolism and subsequent hospital readmission rates: An administrative claims analysis from 30 managed care organizations. J Manag Care Pharm 2007;13(6):475–486.
99. London R, Solis A, Goldberg GA, et al. Examination of resource use and clinical interventions associated with chronic kidney disease in a managed care population. J Manag Care Pharm 2003;9(30): 248–255.
100. Johnsrud MT, Crismon LM. Economic evaluation of citalopram use and expenditures among recipients in the Texas Medicaid Program. J Manag Care Pharm 2002;8(6):492–498.
101. Jolicoeur LM, Jones-Grizzle AJ, Boyer JG. Guidelines for performing a pharmacoeconomic analysis. Am J Hosp Pharm 1992;49:1741–1747.
102. Sanchez LA. Pharmacoeconomic principles and methods: Conducting pharmacoeconomic evaluations in a hospital setting. Hosp Pharm 1995;30:412–428.
103. Okamoto JL. Case study: Conducting a pharmacoeconomic evaluation. In: Grauer D, Lee J, Odom T, et al., eds. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes, 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2003:394–403.