Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:
- 1. Discuss the most common causes of cardiac arrest in both adult and pediatric patients.
- 2. Define each component of the âchain of survival,â and apply this concept to a victim of cardiac arrest.
- 3. Discuss the importance of electrical defibrillation and its effect on survival for a patient with VF or PVT.
- 4. Compare and contrast the principles of CCR with CRP.
- 5. Formulate a pharmacological treatment plan for a patient with VF or PVT.
- 6. Compare and contrast the different sympathomimetic agents used to treat VF or PVT.
- 7. Discuss the role of vasopressin for a patient with cardiac arrest.
- 8. Compare and contrast the antiarrhythmic agents recommended for a patient with VF or PVT.
- 9. Discuss the role of therapeutic hypothermia for a comatose patient following cardiac arrest.
- 10. List the common correctable causes of PEA and asystole.
- 11. Discuss the role of atropine for a patient with asystole or PEA.
- 12. Discuss the role of sodium bicarbonate for a patient with cardiac arrest.
- 13. Cite the doses of the drugs used to treat a cardiac arrest.
- 14. Discuss strategies for drug administration if IV access can not be obtained.
- 15. Describe the treatment of cardiac arrest as it applies to special situations such as drowning, hypothermia, pregnancy, trauma, and electrical shock.
- 16. Discuss treatment strategies that pertain to postresuscitative care following a cardiac arrest.
- 17. Formulate a monitoring plan for the postresuscitation phase of cardiac arrest.
Cardiac arrest is defined as the cessation of cardiac mechanical activity as confirmed by the absence of signs of circulation (e.g., a detectable pulse, unresponsiveness, and apnea).1 While there is wide variation in the reported incidence of cardiac arrest, it is estimated that there are 294,851 emergency medical services (EMS)-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests annually in the United States.2 Unfortunately, outcomes remain alarmingly poor with survival to hospital discharge ranging from 1.1% to 8.1% in patients who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.3...