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2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate: An intermediate in the Rapoport–Luebering shunt, formed between 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and 3-phospho-glycerate; an important regulator of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.

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5-α-reductase:Enzyme responsible for conversion of testosterone to its active metabolite dihydrotesterone. Two types of this enzyme exist. Type 2 is predominant in prostate cells.

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α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors: Two of three types of ionotropic post-synaptic glutamate receptors. These receptors are similar and are often considered together. Upon binding glutamate, these receptors permit the influx of Na+ ions and results in brain excitation. These are one of the two primary receptors for excitatory neurotransmission in the brain.

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α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate: See AMPA.

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α-Hydroxy acids: Exfoliating products such as lactic, glycolic, malic, mandelic, and tartaric acid used in cosmetics.

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β-Hydroxy acid:Salicylic acid.

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γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA): The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

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γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors: Postsynaptic ionotropic receptors that bind to GABA and result in Cl influx and neuronal hyperpolarization. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotrasmitter in the brain and GABAA receptors mediate fast CNS inhibitory neurotransmission.

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Abscess: A purulent collection of fluid separated from surrounding tissue by a wall comprised of inflammatory cells and adjacent organs. It usually contains necrotic debris, bacteria, and inflammatory cells.

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Abstinence: Refraining from the indulgence in something, as sexual intercourse or substances, by one's own choice. The absence of genital contact that could permit a pregnancy (i.e., penile penetra-tion into the vagina).

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Acanthosis: Increased thickness of the prickle cell layer of the skin.

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Acculturation: The process by which individuals from one cultural group adopt or change behaviors, attitudes and/or beliefs through contact with a different culture.

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Acetabular: Relating to the acetabulum, the hollow, cuplike portion of the pelvis into which the head of the thigh bone (femur) fits.

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Achalasia: Problem that occurs when a ring of muscle fibers, such as a sphincter of the esophagus, fail to relax.

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Acne: Inflammatory eruption of the sebaceous gland.

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Acnegenicity: Product effect that causes irritation of follicles resulting in papules and pustules.

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Acquired resistance: See Secondary resistance.

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Acromegaly: A pathologic condition characterized by excessive production of growth hormone.

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Activities of daily living: Dressing, bathing, getting around inside the home, feeding, toileting, and grooming. See also Instrumental activities of daily living.

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Acute bacterial pharyngitis: Acute bacterial infection of the oropharynx or nasopharynx.

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Acute bacterial sinusitis: Acute bacterial infection of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 30 days.

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Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): Ischemic chest discomfort at rest most often accompanied by ST-segment elevation, ST-segment depression, or T-wave inversion on the ...

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