After completing this chapter, the reader will be able to
- List and explain the skills pharmacists need to locate and evaluate current information for pharmacy practice activities.
- Describe special characteristics of a controlled clinical trial that distinguish this research design as the prototype for clinical research.
- Differentiate between the types of data and measures of central tendency.
- Prepare a null hypothesis (H0) based upon the clinical trial objective and endpoints.
- Differentiate between Type I and Type II errors; discuss methods to reduce the possibility of either of these errors occurring.
- Interpret p-values and 95% confidence interval (CI); discuss whether to reject or fail-to-reject the H0 by using clinical trial results.
- Calculate and interpret relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction (RRR), absolute risk reduction (ARR), and number-needed-to-treat (NNT).
- State whether a statistical significance and clinical difference are present, using the clinical trial results.
- Explain the purpose and usage of editorials, letters to the editor, and secondary journals in critiquing clinical trials and in the decision-making process of applying the results into practice.