Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Campylobacter, and Helicobacter species are gram-negative rods that are all widely distributed in nature. The vibrios are found in marine and surface waters. Aeromonas is found predominantly in fresh water and occasionally in cold-blooded animals. Plesiomonas exists in both cold- and warm-blooded animals. The campylobacters are found in many species of animals, including many domesticated animals. Vibrio cholerae produces an enterotoxin that causes cholera, a profuse watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration and death. Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of enteritis in humans. Less commonly, Aeromonas and, rarely, Plesiomonas have been associated with diarrheal disease in humans. Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastritis and duodenal ulcer disease.
Vibrios are among the most common bacteria in surface waters worldwide. They are curved aerobic rods and are motile, possessing a polar flagellum. V cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 cause cholera in humans, and other vibrios may cause sepsis or enteritis. The medically important vibrios are listed in Table 17-1.
Table 17–1 The Medically Important Vibrios |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf)
Table 17–1 The Medically Important Vibrios
|Organism BHU||Human Disease|
|Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139||Epidemic and pandemic cholera|
|Vibrio cholerae serogroups non-O1/non-O139||Cholera-like diarrhea; mild diarrhea; rarely, extraintestinal infection|
|Vibrio parahaemolyticus||Gastroenteritis, perhaps extraintestinal infection|
|Others Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio hollisae, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio damsela, Vibrio anginolyticus, Vibrio metschnikovii, Vibrio cincinnatiensis||Ear, wound, soft tissue, and other extraintestinal infections (all uncommon)|
The epidemiology of cholera closely parallels the recognition of V cholerae transmission in water and the development of sanitary water systems.
Morphology and Identification
Upon first isolation, V cholerae is a comma-shaped, curved rod 2–4 μm long (Figure 17-1). It is actively motile by means of a polar flagellum. On prolonged cultivation, vibrios may become straight rods that resemble the gram-negative enteric bacteria.
Gram stain of Vibrio cholerae. Often they are comma shaped or slightly curved (arrows) and 1 × 2 to 4 μm. Original magnification ×1000.
V cholerae produces convex, smooth, round colonies that are opaque and granular in transmitted light. V cholerae and most other vibrios grow well at 37°C on many kinds of media, including defined media containing mineral salts and asparagine as sources of carbon and nitrogen. V cholerae grows well on thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose (TCBS) agar, a media selective for vibrios, on which it produces yellow colonies (sucrose fermented) that are readily visible against the dark-green background of the agar (Figure 17-2). Vibrios are oxidase positive, which differentiates them from enteric gram-negative bacteria. Characteristically, vibrios grow at a very high pH (8.5–9.5) and are rapidly killed ...