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Table 31-1 Pathophysiology (N Engl J Med 2001;345:1318; Lancet 2004;363:139; Heart 2006;92:879; BMJ 2006;333:334)
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  • Laboratory Findings (Principles & Practices of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed. 2010:1067)
    • Hematological: anemia (70–90%), thrombocytopenia (5–15%), leukocytosis (20–30%), ↓ serum iron & ↓ iron-binding capacity
    • Inflammatory markers: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): nonspecific marker, elevated in ∼60% of cases; C-reactive protein (CRP): non-specific marker; almost always elevated in cases of IE; can be used to monitor therapy
    • Urinalysis: proteinuria (50–65%), microscopic hematuria (30–60%)

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