APS, American Pain Society; IT, intrathecal; IVT, intraventricular; N/V, nausea & vomiting; PFNS, preservative-free normal saline.
*Information provided as a medical resource but not intended to replace physician's judgment.
†Information not available.
‡Not FDA approved by this route.
References: Rathmell JP, Lair TR, Nauman B. The role of intrathecal drugs in the treatment of acute pain. Anesth Analg 2005;101: S30; Tunkel AR, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:1267; Ziai W, Lewin III JJ. Improving the role of intraventricular antimicrobial agents in the management of meningitis. Curr Opin Neurol 22:277.