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This chapter will focus on the medicine specialties of infectious diseases (ID) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), cardiology, oncology, psychiatry, and nephrology. Many individuals find it hard to decide which specialty they want to pursue. In fact, quite a few find themselves at a crossroads wanting to train in more than one specialty. When making the final decision on which specialty to train, the candidate must fully evaluate what their interests are and which type of practice would be the best fit for their personality and passions. For instance, if one enjoys psychology, is intrigued by people, and is patient, psychiatry may be a good option for them. If one gets satisfaction from seeing drug effects work quickly or likes to solve complex problems and mysteries, ID or cardiology may be an ideal specialty choice. Someone who likes internal medicine and managing complex comorbidities, HIV or nephrology may be the right choice. As with Postgraduate Year One (PGY-1) residencies, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has a global set of standards for accreditation in Postgraduate Year Two (PGY-2) specialty residencies in general, as well as specific standards for a select number of specialties. In contrast to PGY-1 residencies, not all PGY-2 residencies are accredited. This is typically not a problem because the majority of nonaccredited PGY-2 programs follow the ASHP guidelines and standards. In whatever PGY-2 specialty one decides to pursue, it is very important that they properly research the specialty area to become familiar with the various areas and options for practice, the different patient populations, and the variety of opportunities to expand one's knowledge, skills attitudes, and abilities.

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In microbiology did you like the grape smelling Pseudomonas spp or the mothball smell of Escherichia coli? Do you like solving mysteries and are you intrigued by grotesque looking wounds and strange organisms? If any of these things captivate your interests, ID could be right for you. Specialty training in ID should provide a clinician with the foundation to practice in a plethora of clinical settings. The opportunities for ID trained pharmacists are constantly growing. In the past 5 to 10 years, the ID pharmacist has become an integral part of the practice of antimicrobial stewardship in healthcare organizations.1 In the 2007 Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) antimicrobial stewardship guidelines, it is stated that an ID pharmacist should be part of the multidisciplinary stewardship team.2 Since stewardship has become such a main focus of ID practice, it can be misconstrued that being a stewardship pharmacist or the “antibiotic police” is all that an ID pharmacist does. Although it is a very important part of overall practice to prevent the development and spread of antibiotic resistance, stewardship is not the sole practice of someone in ID. Most ID clinical pharmacists are part of the ID team, and in the inpatient setting, are part of the day-to-day activity of patient care participating in daily rounds with the ID consult team. ...

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