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  • Introduction

  • Cell Membranes

    • Passive Transport

      • Simple Diffusion

      • Filtration

    • Special Transport

      • Active Transport

      • Facilitated Diffusion

      • Xenobiotic Transporters

      • Additional Transport Processes

  • Absorption

    • Absorption of Toxicants by the Gastrointestinal Tract

    • Absorption of Toxicants by the Lungs

      • Gases and Vapors

  • Aerosols and Particles

    • Absorption of Toxicants Through the Skin

    • Absorption of Toxicants After Special Routes of Administration

  • Distribution

    • Volume of Distribution

    • Storage of Toxicants in Tissues

      • Plasma Proteins as Storage Depot

      • Liver and Kidney as Storage Depots

      • Fat as Storage Depot

      • Bone as Storage Depot

    • Blood–Brain Barrier

    • Passage of Toxicants Across the Placenta

    • Redistribution of Toxicants

  • Excretion

    • Urinary Excretion

    • Fecal Excretion

      • Nonabsorbed Ingesta

      • Biliary Excretion

    • Exhalation

    • Other Routes of Elimination

      • Cerebrospinal Fluid

      • Milk

      • Sweat and Saliva

  • Computational and Experimental Approaches to Assess Xenobiotic Disposition

      • Absorption

      • Hepatobiliary Excretion

    • Conclusion


The disposition of a chemical or xenobiotic is defined as the composite actions of its absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and elimination. This chapter will focus on the contribution of absorption, distribution, and elimination to xenobiotic toxicity, whereas Chap. 6 is dedicated to biotransformation. The quantitative characterization of xenobiotic disposition is termed pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics and is reviewed in Chap. 7.

The various factors and organs involved in affecting disposition of a toxicant are depicted in Fig. 5-1. The diagram is a pictoral overview of the processes of absorption, distribution, and excretion, and its complexity is intended to illustrate that, although they will be discussed separately, the processes that determine disposition are likely to occur simultaneously. Moreover, the disposition of any compound is a fundamental factor that contributes to its potential for toxicity. Specifically, the toxicity of a substance is directly dependent on the dose, where “dose” is defined as the amount that ultimately reaches the site or sites of action (tissue, cell, or molecular target). Therefore, the disposition of a chemical determines its concentration at the site of action such that the concerted actions of absorption, distribution, and elimination also determine the potential for adverse events to occur.

Figure 5-1.

Summary of the disposition of toxicants as determined by absorption, distribution, and excretion in the body. Black lines represent major pathways of absorption into the body, blue designates distribution, and green lines identify pathways of final excretion (elimination) from the body, with the exception of enterohepatic circulation, which is designated in red.

The skin, lungs, and alimentary canal are the main barriers that separate higher organisms from an environment containing a large number of chemicals (Fig. 5-1). Toxicants must cross one or several of these incomplete barriers to exert deleterious effects, and only chemicals that are caustic and corrosive (acids, bases, salts, oxidizers), which act directly at the point of contact, are exceptions to this generalization. A chemical absorbed into the bloodstream or lymphatics through any of the major barriers is distributed, at least to some extent, throughout the body, including ...

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