This textbook is dedicated to those Indian Health Service (IHS) pharmacists and other health professionals who from the 1960s through the 1970s pioneered the development of the first pharmacy practice model that focused on the PATIENT rather than on the dispensing process. These patient-centered practice innovations included (1) verifying patient understanding on proper use of prescription medications through patient counseling in private consultation rooms; (2) review of prescription orders for appropriateness; and (3) rectifying problems prior to dispensing; and (4) using pharmacists as primary care providers with prescriptive authority. This pharmacist-based management of patients with common chronic diseases and the diagnosis and treatment of common minor acute illnesses was supported by the IHS Pharmacist Practitioner Training Program (IHS PPTP). This program, initiated as an HRSA grant-funded program in 1973, expanded to an IHS-wide program in 1976. The principles of the training for the IHS PPTP serve as the foundation for this textbook. Successor to the IHS PPTP, the IHS Clinical Pharmacy Training Program (IHS CPTP) provided postgraduate training to enable pharmacists to practice in this unique patient-centered pharmacy practice model. All of these patient-centered pharmacy practice innovations were made possible by the farsighted leader-ship of Admiral Allen J Brands, who directed the pharmacy programs of the Indian Health Service and the U.S. Public Health Service. His dedication and persistence in developing and sharing these innovations with the pharmacy profession eventually became the basis for today' ambulatory clinical pharmacy practice.