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Chapter 32: Influenza

Select the statement that accurately describes a patient with influenza.

a. MP has a bacterial illness caused by Haemophilus influenzae.

b. BA has a viral illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

c. JJ has a viral illness caused by rhinovirus.

d. FJ has a viral illness caused by influenza A and B.

Answer d is correct. Influenza A and B are the two types of influenza viruses that cause epidemic human disease. There are two subtypes of influenza A based upon surface antigens (hemagglutinin [H] and neuraminidase [N]). Influenza B is separated into two genetic lineages (Yamagata and Victoria), but not categorized by subtypes. Since 1977, influenza A subtype H1N1, influenza A subtype H3N2, and influenza B have been circulating globally.

Answer a is incorrect. Influenza is a viral illness—not a bacterial illness. It is easy to confuse influenza viral infections with H. influenzae bacterial infections. Even though the species name of Haemophilus is influenzae, it is a bacterial pathogen. Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections.

Answer b is incorrect. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a respiratory virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. RSV is not influenza, although it is a viral infection. RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children younger than 1 year in the United States. Most healthy people recover from RSV infection in 1 to 2 weeks. However, infection can be severe in some people, such as certain infants, young children, and older adults.

Answer c is incorrect. Rhinoviruses are the most common viral infective agent in humans and a causative agent of the common cold.

ZC is a 35-year-old woman. She does not have a significant past medical history and is currently taking a multivitamin and calcium supplementation. She has a 3-year-old child. Based upon the information provided, provide influenza vaccination recommendations.

a. ZC is 35 years old and influenza only affects the elderly and young children. Vaccination is not recommended.

b. ZC does not have comorbidities that place her at risk for influenza complications. Vaccination is not recommended.

c. ZC has a child who is at risk for influenza complications. Vaccination is recommended for ZC.

d. ZC has a child who is at risk for influenza complications. Vaccination is recommended for ZC and her 3-year-old child.

Answer d is correct. Both ZC and the 3-year-old ...

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