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Chapter 32: Influenza

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Select the statement that accurately describes a patient with influenza.

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a. MP has a bacterial illness caused by Haemophilus influenzae.

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b. BA has a viral illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

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c. JJ has a viral illness caused by rhinovirus.

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d. FJ has a viral illness caused by influenza A and B.

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Answer d is correct. Influenza A and B are the two types of influenza viruses that cause epidemic human disease. There are two subtypes of influenza A based upon surface antigens (hemagglutinin [H] and neuraminidase [N]). Influenza B is separated into two genetic lineages (Yamagata and Victoria), but not categorized by subtypes. Since 1977, influenza A subtype H1N1, influenza A subtype H3N2, and influenza B have been circulating globally.

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Answer a is incorrect. Influenza is a viral illness—not a bacterial illness. It is easy to confuse influenza viral infections with H. influenzae bacterial infections. Even though the species name of Haemophilus is influenzae, it is a bacterial pathogen. Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections.

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Answer b is incorrect. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a respiratory virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. RSV is not influenza, although it is a viral infection. RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children younger than 1 year in the United States. Most healthy people recover from RSV infection in 1 to 2 weeks. However, infection can be severe in some people, such as certain infants, young children, and older adults.

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Answer c is incorrect. Rhinoviruses are the most common viral infective agent in humans and a causative agent of the common cold.

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ZC is a 35-year-old woman. She does not have a significant past medical history and is currently taking a multivitamin and calcium supplementation. She has a 3-year-old child. Based upon the information provided, provide influenza vaccination recommendations.

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a. ZC is 35 years old and influenza only affects the elderly and young children. Vaccination is not recommended.

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b. ZC does not have comorbidities that place her at risk for influenza complications. Vaccination is not recommended.

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c. ZC has a child who is at risk for influenza complications. Vaccination is recommended for ZC.

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d. ZC has a child who is at risk for influenza complications. Vaccination is recommended for ZC and her 3-year-old child.

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Answer d is correct. Both ZC and the 3-year-old ...

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