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Chapter 16. Toxic Responses of the Nervous System

Which of the following statements regarding axons and/or axonal transport is FALSE?

a. Single nerve cells can be over 1 m in length.

b. Fast axonal transport is responsible for movement of proteins from the cell body to the axon.

c. Anterograde transport is accomplished by the protein kinesin.

d. The motor proteins, kinesin and dynein, are associated with microtubules.

e. A majority of the ATP in nerve cells is used for axonal transport.

Which of the following statements is not characteristic of Schwann cells in Wallerian degeneration?

a. Schwann cells provide physical guidance needed for the regrowth of the axon.

b. Schwann cells release trophic factors that stimulate growth.

c. Schwann cells act to clear the myelin debris with the help of macrophages.

d. Schwann cells increase synthesis of myelin lipids in response to axonal damage.

e. Schwann cells are responsible for myelination of axons in the peripheral nervous system.

Prenatal exposure to ethanol can result in mental retardation and hearing deficits in the newborn. What is the cellular basis of the neurotoxicity?

a. neuronal loss in cerebellum.

b. acute cortical hemorrhage.

c. microcephaly.

d. loss of hippocampal neurons.

e. degeneration of the basal ganglia.

Which of the following characteristics is LEAST likely to place a neuron at risk of toxic damage?

a. high metabolic rate.

b. ability to release neurotransmitters.

c. long neuronal processes supported by the soma.

d. excitable membranes.

e. large surface area.

The use of meperidine contaminated with MPTP will result in a Parkinson’s disease-like neurotoxicity. Where is the most likely site in the brain that MPTP exerts its toxic effects?

a. cerebellum.

b. cerebral cortex.

c. brainstem.

d. substantia nigra.

e. hippocampus.

Which of the following statements regarding the PNS and the CNS is TRUE?

a....

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