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Chapter 21. Toxic Responses of the Endocrine System

The inability to release hormones from the anterior pituitary would NOT affect the release of which of the following?

a. LH.

b. PRL.

c. ADH.

d. TSH.

e. ACTH.

Which of the following statements regarding pituitary hormones is TRUE?

a. The hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system transports releasing hormones to the neurohypophysis.

b. Dopamine enhances prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary.

c. Somatostatin inhibits the release of GH.

d. The function of chromophobes in the anterior pituitary is unknown.

e. Oxytocin and ADH are synthesized by hypothalamic nuclei.

21-Hydroxylase deficiency causes masculinization of female genitals at birth by increasing androgen secretion from which region of the adrenal gland?

a. zona glomerulosa.

b. zona reticularis.

c. adrenal medulla.

d. zona fasciculata.

e. chromaffin cells.

Which of the following statements regarding adrenal toxicity is TRUE?

a. The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla are equally susceptible to fat-soluble toxins.

b. Adrenal cortical cells lack the enzymes necessary to metabolize xenobiotic chemicals.

c. Pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla can cause high blood pressure and clammy skin due to increased epinephrine release.

d. Xenobiotics primarily affect the hydroxylase enzymes in the zona reticularis.

e. Vitamin D is an important stimulus for adrenal cortex steroid secretion.

Chemical blockage of iodine transport in the thyroid gland:

a. affects export of T3 and T4.

b. prevents reduction to I2 by thyroid peroxidase.

c. decreases TRH release from the hypothalamus.

d. interrupts intracellular thyroid biosynthesis.

e. mimics goiter.

Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland are responsible for secretion of which of the following?

a. aldosterone.

b. epinephrine.

c. corticosterone.

d. testosterone.

e. estradiol.

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