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Chapter 22. Toxic Effects of Pesticides

Which of the following does NOT contribute to the environmental presence of organochlorine insecticides?

a. high water solubility.

b. low volatility.

c. chemical stability.

d. low cost.

e. slow rate of degradation.

All of the following are characteristic of DDT poisoning EXCEPT:

a. paresthesia.

b. hypertrophy of hepatocytes.

c. increased potassium transport across the membrane.

d. slow closing of sodium ion channels.

e. dizziness.

Anticholinesterase agents:

a. enhance the activity of AChE.

b. increase ACh concentration in the synaptic cleft.

c. only target the neuromuscular junction.

d. antagonize ACh receptors.

e. cause decreased autonomic nervous system stimulation.

All of the following symptoms would be expected following anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning EXCEPT:

a. bronchodilation.

b. tachycardia.

c. diarrhea.

d. increased blood pressure.

e. dyspnea.

Which of the following insecticides blocks the electron transport chain at NADH–ubiquinone reductase?

a. nicotine.

b. carbamate esters.

c. nitromethylenes.

d. pyrethroid esters.

e. rotenoids.

What is the main mechanism of pyrethroid ester toxicity?

a. blockage of neurotransmitter release.

b. inhibition of neurotransmitter reuptake.

c. acting as a receptor agonist.

d. causing hyperexcitability of the membrane by interfering with sodium transport.

e. interfering with Cl transport across the axonal membrane.

Which of the following herbicides is NOT correctly paired with its mechanism of action?

a. glufosinate—inhibition of glutamine synthetase.

b. paraquat—interference with protein synthesis.

c. glyphosate—inhibition of amino acid synthesis.

d. chlorophenoxy compounds—growth stimulants.

e. diquat—production of superoxide anion through redox cycling.

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