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Chapter 25. Toxic Effects of Radiation and Radioactive Materials

Which of the following is NOT a main type of radiation?

a. alpha particles.

b. microwaves.

c. beta particles.

d. gamma-rays.

e. X-rays.

Which of the following statements regarding alpha particles is FALSE?

a. Alpha particles are ejected from the nucleus of an atom.

b. The atomic number decreases by two after emission of an alpha particle.

c. The atomic weight decreases by two after emission of an alpha particle.

d. Energies of most alpha particles range between 4 and 8 MeV.

e. Alpha particles are helium nuclei.

Which of the following types of radiation is likely the MOST energetic?

a. alpha particles.

b. beta particles.

c. positron emission.

d. electron capture.

e. photon emission.

Pair production and the Compton effect characterize which type of radiation’s interaction with matter?

a. alpha particles.

b. beta particles.

c. positron emission.

d. electron capture.

e. photon emission.

Which of the following statements regarding radiation DNA damage is FALSE?

a. Ionizing radiation slows down by forming ion pairs.

b. A main form of radiation DNA damage occurs by the production of free radicals.

c. High-LET radiation causes more ionizations than does low-LET radiation.

d. Most DNA damage caused by radiation happens directly.

e. Direct and indirect ionization cause similar damage to DNA.

Low-LET radiation:

a. causes large-scale ionizations throughout the cell.

b. results from alpha particle emission.

c. causes damage that is readily repaired by cellular enzymes.

d. is also known as densely ionizing radiation.

e. usually causes irreparable cell damage.

What is the most common type of DNA damage caused by low-LET radiation exposure?

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