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The membrane potential of a particular cell is at the K+ equilibrium. The intracellular concentration for K+ is at 150 mmol/L and the extracellular concentration for K+ is at 5.5 mmol/L. What is the resting potential?

A. –70 mV

B. –90 mV

C. +70 mV

D. +90 mV

The difference in concentration of H+ in a solution of pH 2.0 compared with one of pH 7.0 is

A. 5-fold

B. 1/5 as much

C. 105-fold

D. 10-5 as much

Transcription refers to

A. the process where an mRNA is used as a template for protein production.

B. the process where a DNA sequence is copied into RNA for the purpose of gene expression.

C. the process where DNA wraps around histones to form a nucleosome.

D. the process of replication of DNA prior to cell division.

The primary structure of a protein refers to

A. the twist, folds, or twist and folds of the amino acid sequence into stabilized structures within the protein (ie, α-helices and β-sheets).

B. the arrangement of subunits to form a functional structure.

C. the amino acid sequence of the protein.

D. the arrangement of twisted chains and folds within a protein into a stable structure.

Fill in the blanks: Glycogen is a storage form of glucose. _______ refers to the process of making glycogen and _______ refers to the process of breakdown of glycogen.

A. glycogenolysis, glycogenesis

B. glycolysis, glycogenolysis

C. glycogenesis, glycogenolysis

D. glycogenolysis, glycolysis

The major lipoprotein source of the cholesterol used in cells is

A. chylomicrons

B. intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL)

C. albumin-bound free fatty acids


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