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INTRODUCTION

This chapter will be most useful after having a basic understanding of the material in Chapter 28, Pharmacotherapy of Heart Failure in Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th Edition. In particular, the reader is directed to the following table:

  • Table 28-3, Vasodilator Drugs Used to Treat Heart Failure, which shows drugs used as vasodilators to treat heart failure including their mechanism of action and their effects on preload and afterload

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • Know the stages of heart failure and the treatments that are recommended at each stage.

  • Understand the rationale for the use of drugs that prevent and slow the progression of heart failure.

  • Understand the mechanism of action of inotropic drugs and how they are used to maintain left ventricular function.

  • Identify the major side effects and adverse drug reactions of the drugs used to treat heart failure.

DRUGS IN THIS CHAPTER

  • Bisoprolol (ZEBETA)

  • Candesartan (ATACAND)

  • Captopril (CAPOTEN, others)

  • Carvedilol (COREG, others)

  • Digoxin (LANOXIN, others)

  • Dobutamine (DOBUTREX, others)

  • Dopamine

  • Enalapril (VASOTEC, others)

  • Eplerenone (INSPRA, others)

  • Furosemide (LASIX, others)

  • Hydralazine (APRESOLINE)

  • Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (BIDIL)

  • Inamrinone (INOCOR)

  • Isosorbide dinitrate (ISORDIL, SORBITRATE, others)

  • Labetalol (NORMODYNE, TRANDATE, others)

  • Lisinopril (PRINIVIL, ZESTRIL, others)

  • Losartan (COZAAR)

  • Metoprolol (LOPRESSOR, TOPROL XL, others)

  • Milrinone (PRIMACOR IV)

  • Minoxidil (LONITEN)

  • Nesiritide (NATRECOR)

  • Nitroglycerin (trinitroglycerin, NITROSTAT, NITRO-BID, others)

  • Nitroprusside (NITROPRESS, others)

  • Spironolactone (ALDACTONE)

  • Thiazide diuretics (many, see Chapter 15)

  • Valsartan (DIOVAN)

MECHANISMS OF ACTIONS OF DRUGS USED TO TREAT HEART FAILURE (SEE FIGURE 17-1)

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