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INTRODUCTION

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This chapter will be most useful after having a basic understanding of the material in Chapter 39, Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs in Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th Edition. In addition to the material presented here, the 12th Edition contains:

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  • A discussion of the chemistry and biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones.

  • Figure 39-1 Thyronine, thyroid hormones, and precursors, shows the chemical structures of the thyroid hormones

  • A detailed discussion of thyroid hormone metabolism and the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in peripheral tissues

  • A discussion of the actions of thyroid hormone including the non-genomic effects of thyroid hormones, the effects of thyroid hormone metabolites, the effects of thyroid hormones on growth and development, and the thermogenic, cardiovascular, and metabolic effects of thyroid hormones

  • Table 39-5 Selected Pharmacokinetic Features of Anti-Thyroid Drugs, shows selected pharmacokinetic features of propylthiouracil and methimazole

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

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  • Understand the principles of thyroid hormone regulation.

  • Describe the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, including during pregnancy.

  • Describe the treatment options for well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

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DRUGS INCLUDED IN THIS CHAPTER

  • Carbimazole (NEO-MERCAZOLE)

  • Desiccated thyroid (ARMOR THYROID, others)

  • Iodide

  • Levothyroxine (l-T4, LEVOTHROID, LEVOXYL, SYNTHROID, UNITHROID, others)

  • Liotrix (a thyroxine/triiodothyronine 4:1 mixture; THYROLAR)

  • Methimazole (TAPAZOLE, others)

  • Propylthiouracil

  • Sodium iodine (IODOPEN)

  • Sodium iodine 131I (HICON, others)

  • Triiodothyroxine (CYTOMEL, TRIOSTAT, others)

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Table Graphic Jump Location
MECHANISMS OF ACTION of THYROID AND ANTITHYROID DRUGS
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Table Graphic Jump Location
THYROID FUNCTION TESTS
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Table Graphic Jump Location
SYMPTOMS OF THYROID DISEASE

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