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Section 2: Cardiovascular Disorders

A patient with a murmur is suspected of having an abnormal heart valve. Which test would be most appropriate to evaluate the presence and severity of this condition?

A. 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)

B. Holter monitor

C. Exercise stress test

D. Transthoracic echocardiogram

E. Myocardial perfusion scan

The answer is D.

A patient complains of intermittent palpitations. Which test would you order to assess this patient's condition?

A. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

B. Holter monitor

C. Exercise stress test

D. Transthoracic echocardiogram

E. Myocardial perfusion scan

The answer is B.

A 63-year-old truck driver with a history of diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle due to severe right knee osteoarthritis has new onset chest pain. Which is the most reasonable test to evaluate myocardial ischemia in this patient?

A. Adenosine myocardial perfusion scan

B. Exercise stress test

C. Exercise myocardial perfusion study

D. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging

E. Cardiac catheterization

The answer is A.

A 45-year-old woman reports intermittent palpitations and near syncope. A 12-lead ECG demonstrates a prolonged QT interval. Of the following medications she has been prescribed, which may cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (ie, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia)?

A. Verapamil

B. Metoprolol

C. Metformin

D. Neurontin

E. Clarithromycin

The answer is E.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) at the initial rhythm for in-hospital cardiac arrest is roughly 80%.

B. Although once the most common initial rhythm encountered with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of VF or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (PVT) is decreasing markedly.

C. In-hospital cardiac arrest is typically characterized by atrial fibrillation leading to VF.

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