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Section 8: Endocrinologic Disorders

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by:

A. Absolute insulin deficiency, beta cell destruction, most present as adolescents

B. Primary insulin resistance, most present as adults

C. Obesity, high postprandial GLP-1 levels

D. Intrinsic hyperinsulinemia

E. Antibodies to insulin receptors

The answer is A.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is NOT characterized by:

A. Insulin resistance

B. A major reduction in hepatic glucose output

C. A decline in β-cell function and/or mass over time

D. Low postprandial GLP-1 levels

E. A higher postprandial glucagon

The answer is B.

Which of the following properly performed laboratory values would be diagnostic for diabetes mellitus?

A. A fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dL (6.1 mmol/L)

B. A random plasma glucose of 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) after a meal, but the patient states they feel fine, sleep well, and have gained 10 lb (4.5 kg) over the last 6 months

C. A plasma glucose of 187 mg/dL (10.4 mmol/L) at 2 hours on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

D. A hemoglobin A1c value of 6.6% (0.066; 49 mmol/mol Hb)

The answer is D.

An adolescent is newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The father, who also has diabetes, was diagnosed when he was 21 years old after an employment screening and his glucose has been well controlled on a sulfonylurea. He is now 47 years old. What is the likely etiology of their diabetes mellitus?

A. Type 2 DM

B. Mature-onset diabetes in the young (MODY)

C. Type 1 DM

D. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)

The answer is B.

How is the hormone amylin affected in diabetes mellitus?

A. Reduced fasting levels in newly diagnosed type 2 DM

B. Severe resistance to its action at target tissues

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