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Section 15: Infectious Diseases

Choose the correct statement(s) regarding the white blood cell (WBC) count and differential

A. WBC are usually elevated in response to infection

B. The normal range of the WBC is 12,500-20,000 cells/mm3 (12.5-20.0 × 109/L)

C. WBC is nonspecific and can be elevated in response to a number of noninfectious conditions

D. Neutrophils are the most common type of WBC in the blood

E. a, c, and d

The answer is E.

The inflammatory process initiated by infection can set up a complex host responses which include:

A. Activation of the complement cascade

B. An increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate

C. Elevations of C-reactive protein

D. Increased production of interleukins and tumor necrosis factor

E. All of the above

The answer is E.

Which of the following circumstances would not be considered colonization with normal flora?

A. S. epidermidis found on the skin

B. S. aureus in the bloodstream

C. E. coli in the urine

D. Viridans streptococci found in the nasopharnx

E. b and c

The answer is E.

Choose the correct statement(s) regarding the Gram stain and use of cultures to identify potential pathogens

A. The Gram stain may provide a presumptive diagnosis and identify whether the pathogen is Gram-positive or negative and a bacillus or cocci

B. Cultures can provide definitive pathogen identification and differentiate organisms on the basis of biochemical characteristics

C. Every effort should be made to avoid culture contamination

D. Even with automated systems, detection of bacteria or fungi within a few hours is not yet possible

E. a, b, and c

The answer is E.

Although widely employed, the use of hybridization probes is often limited by their lack of sensitivity.

A. True

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