Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis
Heart Failure: Management
Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis
Cardiac Transplantation and Prolonged Assisted Circulation
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Tricuspid Valve Disease
Pulmonic Valve Disease
Multiple and Mixed Valvular Heart Disease
Many acquired and congenital cardiac lesions may result in stenosis and/or regurgitation of one or more heart valves. For example, rheumatic heart disease can involve the mitral (mitral stenosis [MS], mitral regurgitation [MR], or MS and MR), aortic (aortic stenosis [AS], aortic regurgitation [AR], or AS and AR), and tricuspid (tricuspid stenosis [TS], tricuspid regurgitation [TR], or TS and TR) valve, alone or in combination. The common association of functional TR with significant mitral valve disease is discussed in Chap. 261. Severe mitral annular calcification can result in regurgitation (due to decreased annular shortening during systole) and mild or moderate stenosis (caused by extension of the calcification onto the leaflets resulting in restricted valve opening). Patients with severe AS and LV remodeling may develop functional MR that may not improve after isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR). Chordal rupture has been described infrequently in patients with severe AS. Aortic valve infective endocarditis (IE) may secondarily involve the mitral apparatus either by abscess formation and contiguous spread via the intervalvular fibrosa or by “drop metastases” from the aortic leaflets onto the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Mediastinal radiation may result in aortic, mitral, and even tricuspid valve disease, most often with mixed stenosis and regurgitation. Carcinoid heart disease may cause mixed lesions of either or both the tricuspid and pulmonic valves. Ergotamines, and the previously used combination of fenfluramine and phentermine, can rarely result in mixed lesions of the aortic and/or mitral valve. Patients with Marfan syndrome may have both AR from aortic root dilation and MR due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Myxomatous degeneration causing prolapse of multiple valves (mitral, aortic, tricuspid) can also occur in the absence of an identifiable connective tissue disorder. Bicuspid aortic or pulmonic valve disease can result in mixed stenosis and regurgitation. The former is also associated with aortic aneurysm disease and a predisposition to aortic dissection.
In patients with multivalvular heart disease, the pathophysiologic derangements associated with the more proximal valve disease can mask the full expression of the attributes of the more distal valve lesion. For example, in patients with rheumatic mitral and aortic valve disease, the reduction in cardiac output (CO) imposed by the mitral valve disease will decrease the magnitude of the hemodynamic derangements related to the severity of the aortic valve lesion (stenotic, regurgitant, or both). Alternatively, the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) during the ...