PHYSIOLOGIC SINUS TACHYCARDIA
The sinus node is comprised of a group of cells dispersed within the superior aspect of the thick ridge of muscle known as the crista terminalis where the posterior smooth atrial wall derived from the sinus venosus meets the trabeculated anterior portion of the right atrium (Fig. 242-1). Sinus p waves are characterized by a frontal plane axis directed inferiorly and leftward, with positive p waves in leads II, III, and aVF; a negative p wave in aVR; and an initially positive biphasic p wave in V1. Normal sinus rhythm has a range of rates between 60–100 beats/min. Sinus tachycardia (>100 beats/min) typically occurs in response to sympathetic stimulation and vagal withdrawal, whereby the rate of spontaneous depolarization of the sinus node increases and the focus of earliest activation within the node typically shifts more leftward and closer to the superior septal aspect of the crista terminalis, thus producing taller p waves in the inferior limb leads when compared to normal sinus rhythm. Sinus bradycardia is defined as rates less than 60 beats/min; however, bradycadia can be normal during sleep and in fit individuals.
Right atrial anatomy pertinent to normal sinus rhythm and supraventricular tachycardia. A. Typical P-wave morphology during normal sinus rhythm based on standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. There is a positive P wave in leads II, III, and aVF; biphasic, initially positive P wave in V1; and negative P wave in aVR. B. Right atrial anatomy seen from a right lateral perspective with the lateral wall opened to view the septum. AVN, atrioventricular node; CS Os, coronary sinus ostium; FO, fossa ovalis; IVC, inferior vena cava; SVC, superior vena cava; TVA, tricuspid valve annulus.
Sinus tachycardia is considered physiologic when it is an appropriate response to exercise, stress, or illness. Sinus tachycardia can be difficult to distinguish from focal atrial tachycardia (see below) that originates near the sinus node. A causative factor (such as exertion) and a gradual increase and decrease in rate favor sinus tachycardia, whereas abrupt onset and offset favor atrial tachycardia. The distinction can be difficult and occasionally requires extended ECG monitoring or even invasive electrophysiology study. Treatment for physiologic sinus tachycardia is aimed at the underlying condition (Table 242-1), but frequently no therapy is necessary.
TABLE 242-1Common Causes of Physiologic Sinus Tachycardia ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 242-1 Common Causes of Physiologic Sinus Tachycardia
Acute illness with fever, infection, pain
Drugs that have sympathomimetic, vagolytic, or vasodilator properties, e.g., albuterol, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, nifedipine, hydralazine
NONPHYSIOLOGIC SINUS TACHYCARDIA
Inappropriate sinus tachycardia is an uncommon condition in which the sinus rate increases spontaneously at rest or out of proportion to physiologic stress or exertion and ...