Dysuria, Bladder Pain, and the Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome
Dysuria and bladder pain are two symptoms that commonly call attention to the lower urinary tract.
Dysuria, or pain that occurs during urination, is commonly perceived as burning or stinging in the urethra and is a symptom of several syndromes. The presence or absence of other symptoms is often helpful in distinguishing among these conditions. Some of these syndromes differ between men and women.
Approximately 50% of women experience dysuria at some time in their lives; ~20% report having had dysuria within the past year. Most dysuria syndromes in women can be categorized into two broad groups: bacterial cystitis and lower genital tract infections.
Bacterial cystitis is usually caused by Escherichia coli; a few other gram-negative rods and Staphylococcus saprophyticus also can be responsible. Bacterial cystitis is acute in onset and manifests not only as dysuria but also as urinary frequency, urinary urgency, suprapubic pain, and/or hematuria.
The lower genital tract infections include vaginitis, urethritis, and ulcerative lesions; many of these infections are caused by sexually transmitted organisms and should be considered particularly in young women who have new or multiple sexual partners or whose partners do not use condoms. The onset of dysuria associated with these syndromes is more gradual than in bacterial cystitis and is thought (but not proven) to result from the flow of urine over damaged epithelium. Frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, and hematuria are reported less frequently than in bacterial cystitis. Vaginitis, caused by Candida albicans or Trichomonas vaginalis, presents as vaginal discharge or irritation. Urethritis is a consequence of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ulcerative genital lesions may be caused by herpes simplex virus and several other specific organisms.
Among women presenting with dysuria, the probability of bacterial cystitis is ~50%. This figure rises to >90% if four criteria are met: dysuria and frequency without vaginal discharge or irritation. Present standards suggest that women meeting these four criteria, if they are otherwise healthy, are not pregnant, and have an apparently normal urinary tract, can be diagnosed with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis and treated empirically with appropriate antibiotics. Other women with dysuria should be further evaluated by urine dipstick, urine culture, and a pelvic examination.
Dysuria is less common among men. The syndromes presenting as dysuria are similar to those in women but with some important distinctions.
In the majority of men with dysuria, frequency, urgency, and/or suprapubic, penile, and/or perineal pain, the prostate is involved, either as the source of infection or as an obstruction to urine flow. Bacterial prostatitis is usually caused by E. coli or another gram-negative rod, with one of two presentations. Acute bacterial prostatitis presents with fever and chills; ...