Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits in the absence of detectable structural abnormalities. No clear diagnostic markers exist for IBS; thus the diagnosis of the disorder is based on clinical presentation. In 2016, the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of IBS were updated to Rome IV (Table 320-1). Throughout the world, about 10–20% of adults and adolescents have symptoms consistent with IBS, and most studies show a female predominance. IBS symptoms tend to come and go over time and often overlap with other functional disorders such as fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and genitourinary symptoms. Severity of symptoms varies and can significantly impair quality of life, resulting in high health care costs. Advances in basic, mechanistic, and clinical investigations have improved our understanding of this disorder and its physiologic and psychosocial determinants. Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility, visceral hyperalgesia, disturbance of brain–gut interaction, abnormal central processing, autonomic and hormonal events, genetic and environmental factors, and psychosocial disturbances are variably involved, depending on the individual. This progress may result in improved methods of treatment.
TABLE 320-1Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndromea ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 320-1 Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndromea
Recurrent abdominal pain, on average, at least 1 day per week in the last 3 months, associated with ≥2 of the following criteria:
Related to defecation
Associated with a change in frequency of stool
Associated with a change in form (appearance) of stool
IBS is a disorder that affects all ages, although most patients have their first symptoms before age 45. Older individuals have a lower reporting frequency. Women are diagnosed with IBS two to three times as often as men and make up 80% of the population with severe IBS. As indicated in Table 320-1, pain is a key symptom for the diagnosis of IBS. This symptom should be associated with defecation and/or have their onset associated with a change in frequency or form of stool. In comparison to Rome III, the Rome IV criteria is more stringent, requiring abdominal pain to occur at a minimum of once a week and eliminates “discomfort” as one of the criteria. Painless diarrhea or constipation does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria to be classified as IBS. Supportive symptoms that are not part of the diagnostic criteria include defecation straining, urgency or a feeling of incomplete bowel movement, passing mucus, and bloating.
According to the current IBS diagnostic criteria, abdominal pain is a prerequisite clinical feature of IBS. Abdominal pain in IBS is highly variable in intensity and location. It is frequently episodic and crampy, but ...