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CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by perturbations of language, perception, thinking, social activity, affect, and volition. There are no pathognomonic features. The syndrome commonly begins in late adolescence, has an insidious (and less commonly acute) onset, and, often, a poor outcome, progressing from social withdrawal and perceptual distortions to recurrent delusions and hallucinations. Patients may present with positive symptoms (such as conceptual disorganization, delusions, or hallucinations) or negative symptoms (loss of function, anhedonia, decreased emotional expression, impaired concentration, and diminished social engagement) and must have at least two of these for a 1-month period and continuous signs for at least 6 months to meet formal diagnostic criteria. Disorganized thinking or speech and grossly disorganized motor behavior, including catatonia, may also be present. As individuals age, positive psychotic symptoms tend to attenuate, and some measure of social and occupational function may be regained. “Negative” symptoms predominate in one-third of the schizophrenic population and are associated with a poor long-term outcome and a poor response to drug treatment. However, marked variability in the course and individual character of symptoms is typical.

The term schizophreniform disorder describes patients who meet the symptom requirements but not the duration requirements for schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder is used for those who manifest symptoms of schizophrenia and independent periods of mood disturbance. The terms schizotypal and schizoid refer to specific personality disorders and are discussed in that section. The diagnosis of delusional disorder is used for individuals who have delusions of various content for at least 1 month but who otherwise do not meet criteria for schizophrenia. Patients who experience a sudden onset of a brief (<1 month) alteration in thought processing, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or gross motor behavior, are most appropriately designated as having a brief psychotic disorder. Catatonia is recognized as a nonspecific syndrome that can occur as a consequence of other severe psychiatric/medical disorders and is diagnosed by the documentation of three or more of a cluster of motor and behavioral symptoms, including stupor, cataplexy, mutism, waxy flexibility, and stereotypy, among others. Prognosis depends not on symptom severity but on the response to antipsychotic medication. A permanent remission without recurrence does occasionally occur. About 10% of schizophrenic patients commit suicide.

Schizophrenia is present in 0.85% of individuals worldwide, with a lifetime prevalence of ~1–1.5%. An estimated 300,000 episodes of acute schizophrenia occur annually in the United States, resulting in direct and indirect costs of $62.7 billion.

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

The diagnosis is principally one of exclusion, requiring the absence of significant associated mood symptoms, any relevant medical condition, and substance abuse. Drug reactions that cause hallucinations, paranoia, confusion, or bizarre behavior may be dose-related or idiosyncratic; parkinsonian medications, clonidine, quinacrine, and procaine derivatives are the most common prescription medications associated with these symptoms. Drug causes should be ruled out in any case of newly emergent ...

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