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TABLE A5–1: Drugs That Induce Apnea
Relative Frequency of Reactions
Central nervous system depression
Narcotic analgesics F
Barbiturates F
Benzodiazepines F
Other sedatives and hypnotics I
Tricyclic antidepressants R
Phenothiazines R
Ketamine R
Promazine R
Anesthetics R
Antihistamines R
Alcohol R
Fenfluramine I
L-Dopa R
Oxygen R
Respiratory muscle dysfunction
Aminoglycoside antibiotics I
Polymyxin antibiotics I
Neuromuscular blockers I
Quinine R
Digitalis R
Corticosteroids F
Diuretics I
Aminocaproic acid R
Clofibrate R

(F, frequent; I, infrequent; R, rare.)

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TABLE A5–2: Drugs That Induce Bronchospasm
Relative Frequency of Reactions
Anaphylaxis (IgE-mediated)
Penicillins F
Sulfonamides F
Serum F
Cephalosporins F
Bromelin R
Cimetidine R
Papain F
Pancreatic extract I
Psyllium I
Subtilase I
Tetracyclines I
Allergen extracts I
LI-Asparaginase F
Pyrazolone analgesics
Direct airway irritation
Acetate R
Bisulfite F
Cromolyn R
Smoke F
N-acetylcysteine F
Inhaled steroids I
Precipitating IgG antibodies
β-Methyldopa R
Carbamazepine R
Spiramycin R
Cyclooxygenase inhibition
Aspirin/NSAIDs F
Phenylbutazone I
Acetaminophen R
Anaphylactoid mast-cell degranulation
Narcotic analgesics I
Ethylenediamine R
Iodinated-radiocontrast media F
Platinum R
Local anesthetics I
Steroidal anesthetics I
Iron–dextran complex I
Pancuronium bromide R
Benzalkonium chloride I
Pharmacologic effects
α-Adrenergic receptor blockers I-F
Cholinergic stimulants I
Anticholinesterases R
β-Adrenergic agonists R
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid R
Unknown mechanisms
ACE inhibitors I
Anticholinergics R
Hydrocortisone R
Isoproterenol R
Monosodium glutamate I
Piperazine R
Tartrazine R
Sulfinpyrazone R
Zinostatin R
Losartan R

(ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; F, frequent; I, infrequent; Ig, immunoglobulin; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; R, rare.)

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TABLE A5–3: Tolerance of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs in Aspirin-Induced Asthma
Cross-Reactive Drugs Drugs with No Cross-Reactivity
Diclofenac Acetaminophena
Diflunisal Benzydamine
Fenoprofen Chloroquine
Flufenamic acid Choline salicylate
Flurbiprofen Corticosteroids
Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate Dextropropoxyphene
Ibuprofen Phenacetina
Indomethacin Salicylamide
Ketoprofen Sodium salicylate
Mefenamic acid

A very small percentage (5%) of aspirin-sensitive patients react to acetaminophen and phenacetin.

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TABLE A5–4: Drugs That Induce Pulmonary Edema
Relative Frequency of Reactions
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Excessive intravenous fluids F
Blood and plasma transfusions F
Corticosteroids F
Phenylbutazone R
Sodium diatrizoate R
Hypertonic intrathecal saline R
β2-Adrenergic agonists I
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
Heroin F
Methadone I
Morphine I
Oxygen I
Propoxyphene R
Ethchlorvynol R
Chlordiazepoxide R
Salicylate R
Hydrochlorothiazide R
Triamterene + hydrochlorothiazide R
Leukoagglutinin reactions R
Iron–dextran complex R
Methotrexate R
Cytosine arabinoside R
Nitrofurantoin R
Dextran 40 R
Fluorescein R
Amitriptyline R
Colchicine R
Nitrogen mustard R
Epinephrine R
Metaraminol R
Bleomycin R
Iodide R
Cyclophosphamide R
VM-26 R

(F, frequent; I, infrequent; R, rare.)

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TABLE A5–5: Drugs That Induce Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia (Loeffler’s Syndrome)
Drug Relative Frequency of ...

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