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SOURCE

Source: Shrader SP, Ragucci KR. Contraception. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1861&sectionid=146066904. Accessed May 11, 2017.

DEFINITION

  • Prevention of pregnancy after sexual intercourse by inhibiting sperm from reaching a mature ovum (methods that act as barriers or prevent ovulation) or by preventing fertilized ovum from implanting in endometrium (mechanisms that create unfavorable uterine environment).

DIAGNOSIS

MEANS OF CONFIRMATION AND DIAGNOSIS

  • American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and other national organizations allow provision of hormonal contraception after medical history and blood pressure measurement.

DESIRED OUTCOMES

  • Prevention of pregnancy.

  • Other health benefits include:

    • Prevention of STDs (with condoms)

    • Improvements in menstrual cycle regularity (with hormonal contraceptives)

    • Improvements in certain health conditions (with hormonal contraceptives)

    • Management of perimenopause.

TREATMENT: NONPHARMACOLOGIC METHODS AND SPERMICIDES

  • Abstinence (rhythm) method not well accepted:

    • Avoidance of sexual intercourse during the days of the menstrual cycle.

    • Associated with relatively high-pregnancy rates.

  • Barrier techniques.

    • Condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, sponges.

    • Higher failure rates than most hormonal contraceptives.

  • Table 1: Comparison of nonpharmacologic contraceptive methods and spermicides.

TABLE 1.abcdComparison of Methods of Nonhormonal Contraception

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