Source: Chessman KH, Haney J. Disorders of sodium and water homeostasis. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1861§ionid=146061710. Accessed April 18, 2017.
Homeostasis: Physiologic processes that maintain relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements.
Insensible water loss in patients deprived of water (eg, mechanical ventilation) may result in hypernatremia.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes excretion of large volumes of dilute urine/day.
Iatrogenic administration of hypertonic sodium chloride results in hypernatremia and expanded ECF volume.
MEANS OF CONFIRMATION AND DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT: NONPHARMACOLOGIC AND PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY