1.1.7: Obtain, interpret, assess, and/or evaluate risk factors relevant to the prevention of a disease or medical condition and the maintenance of wellness
Which of the following is correct regarding bacterial meningitis?
(A) A bacteria will be identified in a majority of the cases.
(B) The likelihood of a bacteria being identified is unchanged if a patient receives antibiotics prior to CSF cultures.
(C) CSF cultures are not reliable for diagnosis.
(D) Increased vaccination rates have not impacted the incidence of bacterial meningitis in the United States.
The correct answer is (A).
More than 80% of cases of bacterial meningitis in untreated patients will reveal a pathogen (A).
Prior receipt of antibiotics will decrease the likelihood of obtaining a positive culture (B). CSF cultures are reliable when they reveal a pathogen (C). Vaccinations have dramatically decreased the incidence of bacterial meningitis (D).
Which of the following may decrease a person's risk of colorectal cancer?
(C) Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
HRT (C) lowers risk of colorectal cancer. However, due to other risks associated with HRT, including increased risk of other types of cancers, HRT is not recommended for prophylaxis.
Obesity (A) would increase risk of colorectal cancer. HNPCC (B) would increase risk of colorectal cancer. HNPCC is an inherited disorder that leads to defects in DNA mismatch repair and predisposes a person to a number of different cancers including colorectal, endometrium, ovarian, and stomach, among others. Low dietary fiber (D) and alcoholism (E) would increase risk of colorectal cancer.
BS is a 24-year-old man who comes to your pharmacy and states, "What can my girlfriend and I use to make sure she doesn't get pregnant and protect ourselves from, you know...diseases?" Which is the best regimen to recommend from the following choices?
(A) Water-based lubricant + female condom
(B) Oil-based lubricant + male latex condom
(C) Female condom + male latex condom
(D) Female condom + male lamb cecum condom
Water-based lubricant is safe to use with latex condoms and does not comprise its ability to protect against STIs (A).
Oil-based lubricant is not safe to use ...