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Chapter 28. Opportunistic Infections

Pyrimethamine has been shown to cause bone marrow suppression. Which agent can be given in conjunction with pyrimethamine to lessen the suppressive effects?

a. Vitamin B12

b. Levofloxacin

c. Dapsone

d. Leucovorin

Answer d is correct. Leucovorin has similar functionality when used with methotrexate.

Answer a is incorrect. Vitamin B12 will not have an effect on the bone marrow suppression of pyrimethamine.

Answer b is incorrect. Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, has not been shown to decrease bone marrow suppression.

Answer c is incorrect. Dapsone prevents bacterial folic acid synthesis but has not been demonstrated to be helpful in bone marrow suppression.

What is the brand name for moxifloxacin?

a. Avelox

b. Septra

c. Mepron

d. Aczone

Answer a is correct. Avelox is the brand name of moxifloxacin.

Answer b is incorrect. Septra is the brand name of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Answer c is incorrect. Mepron is the brand name of atovaquone.

Answer d is incorrect. Aczone is the brand name of dapsone.

JK is a patient at a local clinic with a recent diagnosis of AIDS. His past medical history includes hypertension, dyslipidemia, and depression. Medications include losartan, atorvastatin, and escitalopram. Labs include: CD4 count of 120 cells/mm3, serum and potassium 4.8 mEq/L (increased from 3.5 mEq/L). Which agent is recommended as a preferred therapy for PCP prophylaxis?

a. Clindamycin

b. TMP-SMX

c. Amikacin

d. Levofloxacin

Answer b is correct. TMP-SMX is the preferred therapy for PCP prophylaxis despite its potassium retaining capabilities.

Answer a is incorrect. Clindamycin, a lincosamide, is an alternative therapy for PCP prophylaxis.

Answer c is incorrect. Amikacin, an aminoglycoside, is not preferred therapy for PCP prophylaxis.

Answer d is incorrect. Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is not considered preferred therapy for PCP prophylaxis.

LZ is a 52-year-old patient admitted to the hospital with complications of AIDS. The nurse informs the pharmacy resident that he is being treated for a PJP infection. She is unclear of the duration of therapy and asks the pharmacy resident for clarification. ...

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