Chapter 14. Electrical Activity of the Brain, Sleep–Wake States, & Circadian Rhythms
An MD/PhD student was comparing sleep patterns in different age groups. What is expected to be the different about sleep as a function of age?
A. Non-REM sleep occupies about 50% of total sleep in young adults and falls to about 20% in the elderly.
B. Young adults experience about 4–6 episodes of REM sleep each night, and infants experience about 5–10 episodes of REM each night.
C. REM sleep occupies about 80% of total sleep in full-term infants and falls to about 20% in the elderly.
D. REM sleep occupies about 80% of total sleep in premature infants and falls until it plateaus at about 25% in adults.
E. In a typical night, a young adult spends 70–100 min in stages 3 and 4 of non-REM sleep, whereas a child spends only about 30 min in these stages of deep sleep.
An MD/PhD student was studying the role of thalamocortical pathways in control of arousal. He was preparing his thesis proposal and included the following information on the two major types of thalamic projections to the cortex.
A. Most thalamic neurons release glutamate throughout the cortex, but thalamic reticular neurons release GABA in the cortex.
B. Afferents from the specific nuclei of the thalamus terminate in cortical layer I–IV, whereas the nonspecific afferents terminate primarily on spiny stellate cells of layer IV.
C. Afferents from the specific nuclei of the thalamus terminate primarily on pyramidal neurons in layer IV, whereas the nonspecific afferents terminate primarily on inhibitory basket calls of layer IV.
D. Thalamic projections to wide regions of the neocortex originate from the midline and intralaminar nuclei; thalamic projections to discrete regions of the neocortex originate in specific sensory relay nuclei.
In a healthy, alert adult sitting with their eyes closed, the dominant EEG rhythm observed with electrodes over the occipital lobes is
E. fast, irregular low-voltage activity.
A 35-year-old man spent the evening in a sleep clinic to determine if he had obstructive sleep apnea. The tests showed that non-REM sleep accounted for over 30% of ...