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Chapter 31. Blood as a Circulatory Fluid & the Dynamics of Blood & Lymph Flow

A 2-year-old-African-American boy is brought to his pediatrician because of acute fever, apparent bone pain, and painful swelling of his hands and feet. A physical examination reveals splenomegaly and a blood test reveals the presence of hemoglobin S. After the acute symptoms subside with rest, hydroxyurea is prescribed. This drug would be expected to reduce the risk of further acute symptoms by which mechanism?

A. Increased synthesis of hemoglobin S

B. Increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin

C. Increasing expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

D. Decreasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin

E. Increasing the synthesis of hemoglobin F

A patient is brought to the emergency room suffering from severe blood loss following a motor vehicle accident. Because of a natural disaster, the lab is closed and it is not possible to determine the patient’s blood type before initiating a blood transfusion to save his life. However, banked blood is available. Blood of which type would be least likely to provoke a dangerous hemolytic transfusion reaction?

A. A

B. B


D. O

E. A mixture of A and B

Which of the following is not required for hemostasis following injury to a blood vessel?

A. Platelets

B. 5-hydroxytryptamine

C. Nitric oxide

D. Collagen

E. Fibrin monomers

A pharmacologist discovers a drug that stimulates the production of VEGF receptors. He is excited because the drug might be of value in the treatment of

A. coronary artery disease.

B. cancer.

C. emphysema.

D. diabetes insipidus.

E. dysmenorrhea.

Which of the following has the highest total cross-sectional area in the body?

A. Arteries

B. Arterioles

C. Capillaries

D. Venules

E. Veins


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