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Chapter 32. Cardiovascular Regulatory Mechanisms

When a pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal medulla) suddenly discharges a large amount of epinephrine into the circulation, the patient’s heart rate would be expected to

A. increase because the increase in blood pressure stimulates the carotid and aortic baroreceptors.

B. increase because epinephrine has a direct chronotropic effect on the heart.

C. increase because of increased tonic parasympathetic discharge to the heart.

D. decrease because the increase in blood pressure stimulates the carotid and aortic chemoreceptors.

E. decrease because of increased tonic parasympathetic discharge to the heart.

A 45-year-old woman had a blood pressure of 155/95 mm Hg when she was at her physician’s office for a physical. She was worried as this was her first physical in over 10 years. The clinician suggested that she begin monitoring her blood pressure at home. Stress-induced activation of which neurons might contribute to the higher BP while in her physician’s office?

A. Limbic cortex and NTS

B. Hypothalamus and CVLM

C. NTS and CVLM

D. Hypothalamus and RVLM

E. Limbic cortex and nucleus ambiguus

Which group of neurons within central autonomic pathways release glutamate on their postsynaptic targets?

A. CVLM neurons projecting to the IML and NTS neurons projecting to the nucleus ambiguus.

B. RVLM neurons projecting to the IML and NTS neurons projecting to the CVLM.

C. NTS neurons projecting to the nucleus ambiguus and CVLM neurons projecting to the RVLM.

D. NTS neurons projecting to the RVLM and CVLM neurons projecting to the RVLM.

E. CVLM neurons projecting to the NTS and RVLM neurons projecting to the IML.

List the location of the arterial baroreceptors, their afferent innervation, and the central site of termination of the afferent fibers.

A. Atria and pulmonary veins, vagus nerve, and nucleus ambiguus

B. Carotid body and aortic body, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve, and NTS

C. Carotid sinus and aortic arch, carotid sinus nerve and aortic depressor nerve, and NTS

D. Carotid sinus and atria, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, and nucleus ambiguus

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