The pathogenesis of bacterial infection includes initiation of the infectious process and the mechanisms that lead to the development of signs and symptoms of disease. The biochemical, structural, and genetic factors that play important roles in bacterial pathogenesis are introduced in this chapter and may be revisited in the organism-specific sections. Characteristics of bacteria that are pathogens include transmissibility, adherence to host cells, persistence, invasion of host cells and tissues, toxigenicity, and the ability to evade or survive the host’s immune system. Resistance to antimicrobials and disinfectants can also contribute to virulence, or an organism’s capacity to cause disease. Many infections caused by bacteria that are commonly considered to be pathogens are inapparent or asymptomatic. Disease occurs if the bacteria or immunologic reactions to their presence cause sufficient harm to the person.
Terms frequently used in describing aspects of pathogenesis are defined in the Glossary (see below). Refer to the Glossary in Chapter 8 for definitions of terms used in immunology and in describing aspects of the host’s response to infection.
Adherence (adhesion, attachment): The process by which bacteria stick to the surfaces of host cells. After bacteria have entered the body, adherence is a major initial step in the infection process. The terms adherence, adhesion, and attachment are often used interchangeably.
Carrier: A person or animal with asymptomatic infection that can be transmitted to another susceptible person or animal.
Infection: Multiplication of an infectious agent within the body. Multiplication of the bacteria that are part of the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and so on is generally not considered an infection; on the other hand, multiplication of pathogenic bacteria (eg, Salmonella species)—even if the person is asymptomatic—is deemed an infection.
Invasion: The process whereby bacteria, animal parasites, fungi, and viruses enter host cells or tissues and spread in the body.
Microbiota: Microbial flora harbored by normal, healthy individuals.
Nonpathogen: A microorganism that does not cause disease; may be part of the normal microbiota.
Opportunistic pathogen: An agent capable of causing disease only when the host’s resistance is impaired (ie, when the patient is “immunocompromised”).
Pathogen: A microorganism capable of causing disease.
Pathogenicity: The ability of an infectious agent to cause disease. (See also virulence.)
Superantigens: Protein toxins that activate the immune system by binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and T-cell receptors (TCR) and stimulate large numbers of T cells to produce massive quantities of cytokines.
Toxigenicity: The ability of a microorganism to produce a toxin that contributes to the development of disease.
Virulence: The quantitative ability of an agent to cause disease. Virulent agents cause disease when introduced into the host in small numbers. Virulence involves adherence, persistence, invasion, and toxigenicity (see above).
IDENTIFYING BACTERIA THAT CAUSE DISEASE
Humans and animals have abundant normal microbiota that usually do not produce disease (see Chapter 10) but achieve a balance ...