WHY DID WE CREATE THIS TEXTBOOK?
Pharmacy remains a very exciting profession; in fact, more opportunities are available for pharmacists, pharmacy students, and educators than ever before. The roles of pharmacists in interprofessional health care teams continue to evolve, as does their recognition by payers and policy makers. Pharmacists continue to transform the delivery of their services to accentuate the critical nature of public health and proactive health care. But with new opportunities also come challenges, including the challenge of how to manage the personal and professional resources necessary to succeed in today’s ever-changing environment.
Educators must not only keep up with changes in pharmacy practice, but also anticipate and prepare our students for opportunities and contingencies that will arise throughout their professional careers. In our efforts to best prepare students, pharmacy management educators have increasingly had to gather teaching materials from a variety of textbooks, journals, and other educational resources. This is due to the fact that many resources only focus on a specific management function (marketing, personnel, accounting, and finance) or a specific practice setting (independent pharmacies, hospital pharmacies). We believed that there would be value in a comprehensive pharmacy management textbook that covered many content areas and gathered a variety of resources into one text. We also aimed to develop a text that uses “evidence-based management”; that is, material derived from the best and most contemporary primary literature, but that which at the same time focuses on the application of knowledge into skills that pharmacists will use every day.
NEW CONTENT IN THIS EDITION!
In planning for a fifth edition of this text, we sought input from faculty who teach pharmacy management, as well as from pharmacy students and pharmacists who apply management principles in their daily practice. We listened carefully to users also while scanning the latest advances in teaching strategies to produce the fifth edition. Of course, we also considered the many changes in pharmacy practice, management, and health systems reform that have occurred during the past few years.
Every chapter has been updated to reflect the fluid nature of its respective management topic.
New trends in the management literature are reflected in each of the chapters, including management trends within and beyond pharmacy.
Some chapters have been revised substantially and with new authors to provide users of the text with the most relevant information. Examples include the following:
Sustaining medication therapy management services through implementation science as well as other models of care delivery, such as continuous medication monitoring (CoMM).
Leveraging leadership skills into practice by guiding change management, establishing a culture of employee self-motivation, extracting the most from your resources and infrastructure, all while advocating for your profession and the patients you serve.
Broadening our views of how pharmacists manage the supply chain, particularly to ensure that they can access safe and effective medications and other resources that are needed by their patients.
Maintaining compliance with laws, rules, and regulations which impact a pharmacy manager’s ability to care for patients and manage their practice.
Developing new ways of organizing and managing our time for our own success and the success of others, particularly given the challenges and opportunities provided by social media and other forms of technology.
We have also added new chapters commensurate with contemporary pharmacy practice in anticipation of continually evolving models of care. These include:
Ethical Decision Making, Problem Solving, and Delegating Authority, where pharmacists utilize appropriate judgment processes when faced with decisions of how to optimize care in the face of budgetary constraints and preferences of various stakeholders in the medication use process.
Negotiation Skills, a skill needed through various components of practice, ranging from encouraging treatment adherence from patients, to requesting a change from the prescriber in a patient’s medication regimen, to adjudicating a fair contract with a third-party payer for the services renders to covered enrolees.
Pharmacy Technicians, the persons to whom pharmacists are increasingly delegating more responsibility and greater numbers of tasks that pharmacists used to perform so that they can now spend more time in direct patient care activities.
NEW FEATURES IN THIS EDITION!
Management education encompasses a broad constellation of knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes required to become an effective leader. It is difficult for instructors to possess the breadth of experience across all aspects of pharmacy management to intuitively design structured lesson plans to effectively educate their students. With that in mind, the editors of the fifth edition have developed tools to assist instructors with teaching the concepts covered in this book. Instructors who adopt the textbook will have full access to these resources which include: (1) PowerPointTM slides that cover the core content of each chapter; (2) lesson plans built on the Understanding by Design model developed by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins. These plans guide the course leader through the three stages of lesson design: (1) focusing on the big ideas within the content; (2) crafting fair, valid, and reliable assessments of the desired results; and (3) creating an effective and engaging learning unit.
WHAT WILL THE READER FIND IN THIS TEXTBOOK?
This textbook is organized to reflect all of the major management functions performed by pharmacists in any practice setting. The book is divided into sections representing each function, and is further divided into chapters that detail the various components of each function.
Our experience as educators has taught us that students are the most effective learners when they are “ready” to learn. Many students selected pharmacy as a major in part from the desire to help people, but also due to their fascination and intrigue with how such small amounts of various medicinal substances have such profound effects on the body. Many of these students also believe that they only need to learn about management after they graduate, and then only if they take on a managerial or administrative position at their pharmacy. The first section of this book makes the case that management skills are important for all people and pharmacists, regardless of their position or practice setting. In an environment of increasingly scarce resources and higher accountability, we also help the reader to understand and create the value proposition for themselves, their services, and their organization. After establishing the need for management in both our personal and professional lives, the next four sections describe the management functions and resources that are common to all pharmacy practice settings (operations, people, money, traditional pharmacy goods and services). Chapters within each section focus on important aspects of each function or resource.
As pharmacy practice moves from a product orientation to a patient orientation, there are unique challenges that arise in managing the value-added services that pharmacists are developing to meet patient needs in medication therapy management. A section of this book is dedicated to the planning, implementation, and reimbursement of these new patient care services offered by pharmacists.
Several chapters are dedicated to describing the risks inherent in pharmacy practice and the impact that laws, regulations, and medication errors have on pharmacy management. The final section describes how management functions are applied by entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs in settings ranging from independently owned community pharmacies to those developing new goods, services, and ideas in any setting to meet needs related to medications and their use.
HOW EACH CHAPTER IS ORGANIZED?
Each chapter is divided into several sections to facilitate the reader’s understanding and application of the material. Chapters begin with a list of learning objectives that outline the major topics to be addressed. A brief scenario is used to describe how a pharmacy student or pharmacist may need or apply the information described in this book in their daily lives or practice. Questions at the start of each chapter provide direction and assist the reader in understanding what they can expect to learn.
The text of each chapter provides comprehensive coverage of the content and theory underlying the major concepts. References to the management and pharmacy literature are commonly used to provide readers with links to additional background information. Explanations and applications are also used to help readers better understand the need to master and apply each concept. Questions at the end of each chapter encourage readers to think about what they have just learned and apply these concepts in new ways.
WHAT WE HOPE YOU WILL GAIN FROM THIS BOOK?
If you are a pharmacy student, we hope that using this book will help you gain an appreciation for the roles of management in pharmacy practice, regardless of your future position or practice setting. This book will also provide you with a variety of management theories and tools that you can apply in your daily life.
We realize that many pharmacists have not had much management coursework in their formal education or professional training. We hope that this book serves as a valuable guide to pharmacists who may require some assistance in dealing with matters they did not anticipate when embarking on their careers. For those pharmacists with formal management education and experience, we hope that this book serves as a valuable reference or as a source of new ideas that can be applied in daily practice.
For educators, this book has been designed as a comprehensive pharmacy management textbook. As a whole, it is meant to be used in survey courses that cover many areas of pharmacy management. The section format also allows the book to be used in courses that focus on specific pharmacy management functions or topics. The sections and content of each chapter are meant not only to provide valuable information that is easy for students to understand but also to stimulate further discussion and motivate students to learn more on their own.
WE WOULD LIKE TO HEAR FROM YOU!
The creators of each chapter have put a great deal of time and effort into getting their final outputs ready for consumers, but it rarely can be considered a “finished product.” Textbooks are “works in progress” that can always be improved. The best way to improve these products is to seek input from our users. As you use this book, we would like to learn what you like about it, what could be improved, and what topics or features you would like to see included in the future. Please feel free to share your thoughts at any time by contacting us through firstname.lastname@example.org. We plan to improve this book over future editions by listening to your feedback and continuing to reflect changes in the management sciences and pharmacy practice.
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